Population Explosion And Birth Control
This article highlights mainly about population explosion, Its reasons and effects and finally about birth control....
Population Explosion And Birth Control
The world population was less than 2 billion in 1900. But it was more than 6 billion in 2000. In case of India, which holds second largest population in the world after China; had a population of only 238 million in 1901, when the country was undivided. It was 350 million at the time of partition ( formation of Pakistan from India ) in 1947 and reached 1000 million ( 1 billion ) in May 2000. While the world population rose by slightly more than three times, Indian population grew by nearly five times during the 20th century. Today India accounts for 16.77 % of the world population with only 2.4 % of the land area. Earlier China was also facing the same problem but now they have controlled it significantly.
Reason For High Population Growth
1) Decline in death rate
2) Slower decline in birth rate
3) Longer life span
4) Lack of education
5) Increase in health facilities
Problems of Over-population
1) Pressure on land
4) Excessive consumption of natural resources
5) Rise in food output does not match with rise in population
We can get rid of population explosion, only by decreasing the rate of birth. Suitable contraceptives are helpful in this regard. They prevent conception or pregnancy without interfering in reproductive health of the individual. An ideal contraceptives are –
1) User friendly i.e., comfortable and easy to use
2) Without any side effects
4) Completely effective against pregnancy
There are several methods of contraception- natural or traditional, barriers, IUDs, oral contraceptives, Injectables, Implants and Surgical methods.
They are methods which do not require any device, medicine or religious sanction. They are of 3 types-
1) Rhythm Method ( Periodic Abstinence ) : From day 10 to 17 of menstrual cycle, chances of fertilisation ( fusion of ovum and sperms ) are very high. So couples avoid coitus in this period.
2) Withdrawal Method : This method is based on withdrawal of penis from vagina, before ejaculation
3) Just after parturition ( delivery of child ), there is absence of menstruation. It is also the phase of intense lactation. Breast feeding the child fully prevents conception. This method is effective for 6 months.
They are mechanical devices which prevent the deposition of sperms into vagina and their passage into uterus
1) Condom : It is a tubular latex sheath which is rolled over the male copulatory organ during sex
2) Diaphragm : It is a tubular rubber sheath which is fitted inside the vagina
3) Fem shield : This device covers the external genitalia as well as lines the vagina. It provides protection from sexually transmitted diseases
IUDs ( Intra Uterine Devices )
IUDs are inserted into the uterus to prevent conception. They are of three types – Insert, Copper releasing and Hormone releasing
1) Insert IUDs like Lippes loop increases the phagocytosis of sperms in the uterus
2) Copper releasing IUDs suppress sperm motility. Some Cu releasing IUDs are CuT, Cu7, CuT 200, Multiload CuT 375 etc.
3) Hormone releasing IUDs like progestasert and LNG-20, suppress endometrial change and cervical mucus
Oral Contraceptives ( Oral pills )
1) They are preparations containing either progestogen or combination of progestogen and estrogen
2) Pills are taken orally for 21 days in a menstrual cycle starting from 5th day and ending on 25th day
1) Cyclofem and mesigna are combined injectables contraceptives which are given once every month
2) In some, two types of progestin preparations are used singly. They are DMPA 150 mg every 3 months or 300 mg every 6 months and NET EN 200 mg every 2 months
1) They are hormone containing devices which are implanted subdermally for providing long term contraception
2) They are more effective than pills
1) It includes Vasectomy and Tubectomy
2) In male, Vasectomy is done in which vasa deferentia are blocked by cutting and occluding them to block the passage of sperms
3) In females, Tubectomy is done in which a portion of both the fallopian tube is excised or ligated to block the passage of ovum
4) But reversibility of this method is not possible
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