Clinical Significance Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Using Syphilis (Lues Venerea) As A Case Study

Funom Makama By Funom Makama, 1st Apr 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Sexual Health & STDs

Infectious diseases which are transmitted by heterosexual or homosexual intercourse and contacts are included under this group. In many of the developed countries, this group constitutes the main bulk of infectious diseases in adults and the incidence is increasing.

STDs

Increase in promiscuity, change in sex practices, asymptomatic infections, sex facilities for intercontinental travel, failure to trace sources of infection and lack of awareness of healthy sex practices have contributed to the increase in prevalence. The present tendency is to include several other diseases like viral hepatitis B which can also be transmitted sexually in the group of STDs.

Classification Of The Common Diseases Mainly Transmitted Through Sexual Contact
1. spirochetes: Its pathogen is Treponema Pallidum, causing syphilis

2. Bacteria: Pathogens are Neisseria gonerrhea, Hemophilus ducrey and Donovania granulomatis, causing Gonorroea, Chancroid, Granuloma inguinale respectively.

3. Chlamydia: Its pathogen is Chlamydia trachomatis, causing the various diseases: Urethritis, Cervicitis, Lymphogranuloma venereum

4. Viruses: Their pathogens are Herpes simplex virus, Papiloma virus, Mlluscum contagionsum virus; causing Herpes genitalis, Genital warts, Molluscum contagiosum respectively.

5. Protozoa: Its pathogen is Trichomonas vaginalis, causing Trichomonas vaginitis

6. Fungi: its pathogen is Candida Albicans, causing Genital Candidiasis.

7. Ectoparasites: Pathogens are the Phthirus pubis, causing Pubis lice infestation.

Syphilus (Lues Venerea)

This is a chronic infection caused by the spirochetes Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is present in all parts of the world. Though the incidence of primary infection continues to be steady, late complications are distinctly rare at present.

Treponema pallidum is aerobic, very susceptible to antiseptics, and is killed by exposure in 1 to 2 hours. It may survive in stored blood for 72 hours. Infection is acquired by the entry of the organism through abrasions in the skin and mucous membranes. In the vast majority of cases, infection is acquired by sexual intercourse. Rarely skin abrasions may be contaminated by infective discharges. The disease can also be transmitted occasionally by needle pricks, blood transfusion, or by the transplacental route.

Stages: Based on its course, syphilis can be described in 3 stages- primary, secondary and tertiary. In the primary stage, local lesions occur at the site of inoculation. The secondary stage is characterized by generalized lesions, most obviously seen in the skin and mucous membranes. In the tertiary stage, which develops several years after the initial infection, gummatous and destructive lesions develop in many tissues. For practical therapeutic purposes, the disease can be conveniently considered in two phases- the early and the late. The early phase extends over the first two years after infection and this includes the primary, secondary, early recurrent and early latent stages. This phase is more contagious. Syphilis of more than 2 years duration is in the late phase.

Latent Syphilis: It is that stage in which there are no abnormal clinical features. Blood serology is positive, but the CSF does not show any abnormality. History of primary or secondary lesions and abortion during the earlier pregnancies help in identifying this stage.

Clinical types of syphilis:
Congenital syphilis (prenatal infection)
1. Infantile form which manifests within two years of birth
2.Tardive congenital syphilis (late congenital syphilis)- manifests 2 years or more after birth.

Acquired form: Primary, secondary, Latent and late manifestations.

Pathology: The lesions show a chronic granulomatous inflammation and are histologically characterized by epithelioid cells, plasma cells, lymphocytes and giant cells. The small vessels are occluded by obliterative endarteritis. This results in necrosis and scar formation. Inflammation, vascular occlusion and probably immunological factors are contributory to the production of gummata. During the primary and secondary stages, the lesions tem with the organisms. In the late phases, the number of organisms come down and infectivity diminishes.

For more Health Articles, visit the following links:
1. Fitness And Exercise From A Doctor’s Perspective: Maintaining The Lifestyle
2. Special Types Of Anemia: Sideroblastic Anemias And Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
3. Diphtheria: The Health Significance Of Its Clinical Diagnosis And Phases Of Treatment

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Comments

author avatar Blake C. Patria
2nd Apr 2014 (#)

That was awesome. I kinda wanna write a song about it.

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