Disorders Of Digestive System

Ritesh  Sharma By Ritesh Sharma, 22nd Aug 2012 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Diseases & Infections

Digestive system is subjected to a number of diseases like caries ( tooth decay ), mumps ( viral disease of parotids ), gingivitis ( inflammation of gums ), tonsilitis ( inflammation of tonsils ), glossitis ( inflammation of tongue ), typhoid, cholera, amoebic dysentery, appendicitis ( inflammation of vermiform appendix ), colitis ( inflammation of colon ), jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation and indigestion.

Jaundice

It is a syndrome caused by excessive presence of bilirubin in blood and its deposition in skin, mucous membranes and sclera. As a result the patient has a yellow appearance called icterus. Presence of excess of bilirubin is called hyperbilirubinaemia. The urine of the patient appears yellow. The effect is absent in stool which may appear pale. Jaundice can be obstructive ( non flow of bile from liver to duodenum ), haemolytic ( excessive degradation of erythrocytes), spirochaetal, hepatogenic ( due to injury or disease of liver hepatitis ). A person suffering from jaundice generally suffers from liver tenderness, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, loss of appetite and fever.

Vomiting

It is forcible expulsion of the contents of stomach through the mouth. During vomiting the cardiac sphincter and oesophagus relax so that a passage way is created from the stomach to the outside. There is contraction of abdominal muscles as well as gastric muscles. Vomiting is controlled by vomiting centre of medulla oblongata ( a part of brain ). It is commonly preceded by nausea. The agents which promote vomiting are irritating food, depressive odour, motion sickness, excessive drinking, overeating, early pregnancy etc.

Diarrhoea

It is excessive frequency and liquidity of faecal discharges. Diarrhoea is caused by viral or bacterial infection of gastrointestinal tract. The common bacteria causing diarrhoea are E. Coli, salmonella, Campylobacter and Shigella. The common diarrhoea viruses are Rotaviruses and Norwalk viruses. Diarrhoea interferes with digestion. It also reduces amount of food absorption. Excessive loss of body fluid may result in dehydration. ORS or oral rehydration solution provides protection from dehydration.

Constipation

It is infrequent irregular passage of dry hardened faeces. Constipation may cause injury to digestive tract and produce several complications. It is generally accompanied by headache, feeling of depression, sluggishness and pain in abdomen. The common cause of constipation is reduced roughage content of diet resulting in bowel movement after 2-3 days.

Indigestion

It is inability to properly digest the food. The first symptom of indigestion is abdominal discomfort after meals. There is often distension of stomach and intestine giving a feeling of fullness. A lot of gas or flatus is produced. Indigestion is caused by intolerance to an ingredient of food, defect in stomach ( e.g., acidity or hyperchlorohydria ) or intestine ( inadequate enzyme secretion ), anxiety, food poisoning, over eating and consumption of spicy food.

Also read : Malaria, Disorders of nutritional deficiency and Typhoid

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Tags

Constipation, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, Jaundice, Vomiting

Meet the author

author avatar Ritesh Sharma
I am doing graduation in zoology and aspires to become a doctor. I will focus on social and health issues. ' I also write at <a href="http://www.expertscolumn.com">Expertscolumn.com</a> '

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