Etiology, Clinical Presentations And Epidemiology Of Ischemic Heart Disease

Funom Makama By Funom Makama, 17th Jan 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Diseases & Infections

In all the developed countries where reliable statistics are available, ischemic heart disease is one of the most common causes of death and cardiac morbidity in middle and elderly age groups.

Etiology And Clinical Manifestation


1. Coronary atherosclerosis: In middle-aged and elderly subjects, this is by far the most frequent cause.
2. Non-atheromatous coronary artery disease:

3. Arteritis: Polyarteritis nodosa, nonspecific arteritis, syphilitic aortitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thromboangitis obliterans, etc.
4. Thickening of coronary arteries: Mucopolysaccharidoses, amyloidosis.
5. Spasm of coronary arteries: Generally, spasm supervenes on diseased arteries but sometimes no other pathological lesion may be detectable.
6. Dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, dissection of the coronary arteries.
7. Embolism: Infective endocarditis, emboli from the left atrium or left ventricle, left atrial myxoma or paradoxical embolism may affect the coronary arteries.
8. Congenital anomalies: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, coronary arteriovenous fistula, aneurysms of the coronary arteries.
9. Trauma to the coronary arteries, penetrating wounds, injury during pericardiocentesis.
10. Imbalance between oxygen demand and blood supple: Severe aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, prolonged hypotension, severe anemia, thyrotoxicosis, gross tachycardia, etc.

Clinical Presentations

The following distinct clinical syndromes have been recognized:

1. Acute myocardial infarction;
2. Angina pectoris-stable and unstable;
3. Sudden cardiac death;
4. Arrhythmias and conduction defects;
5. Ischemic cardiomyopathy; and
6. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease.


In all the developed countries where reliable statistics are available, ischemic heart disease is one of the most common causes of death and cardiac morbidity in middle and elderly age groups. Till the early part of this decade, the incidence was rising, but there seem to be a slight drop recently. Though reliable statistics are not available, in Africa, ischemic heart disease accounts for 20-35% of the total cardiac morbidity in several series. Men suffer 9 times more frequently than premenopausal women, but after menopause the risk of coronary artherosclerosis rapidly increases to catch up with that of men over a period of several years. The disease is more common in the affluent classes of society, but the poor socio-economic groups and manual labourers are not totally spared.

Several risk factors have been identified as contributing to the development of coronary atherosclerosis. For purposes of management, they have been broadly divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors.

There are more information on the different ailments affecting the heart. Especially for medical personnels and patients of interests. Do well to navigate some of my articles on Cardiac Defects


Aneurysm, Aortic Regurtitation, Aortic Stenosis, Arteritis, Coronary Atherosclerosis, Emboli, Embolism, Heart Diseases, Hypotension, Infective Endocarditis, Morbidity, Obliterance, Pericardiocentesis, Polyarteritis Nodosa, Syphilitic Aortitis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Tachycardia, Thromboangitis, Thyrotoxicosis

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author avatar Funom Makama
A medical Practitioner and a passionate writer. A proud published Author of 2 books, more than 2,000 articles online and 500 Poems!

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author avatar Fern Mc Costigan
17th Jan 2014 (#)

Interesting and informative post as well!

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