Laser Eye Surgery

RisingStorm By RisingStorm, 6th Jun 2010 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Eyes & Vision

A basic description of how laser eye surgery works and what happens during the process


With the increased use of technology, Laser Eye Surgery has become one of the common choices to correct vision problems. Here is some basics about laser eye surgery and what goes on in the surgery itself.

With the increasing reliance on technology by most people living in this world, vision problems have increased. Many people, whether young or old turn to glasses or contact lenses as a way to help correct their vision problems. However, just from the last millennium, laser eye surgery has become a popular alternative for those who wish to correct their vision problems, while being able to participate in their daily activities without flaw.

Now to understand how Laser Eye Surgery would work, a person would have to understand the different portions of the eye and their functions. In the eye, there are many different components, ranging from the pupil to the optic nerve. However, the major ones that are needed for an understanding of laser eye surgery are:

Parts of the Eye: Their uses and Functions

Cornea: A clear dome shaped surface that covers the outer part of the eye that initially refracts or bends light rays as light enters the eyes. It also provides seventy-five percent of the eye’s refractive power.

The aqueous humor: is the chamber behind the cornea that keeps it nourished. It is filled with a translucent liquid that helps to maintain eye pressure.

Pupil: The pupil is the hole in the iris that light passes through to reach the retina.

Lens: Focuses the rays of light coming in from the cornea onto the retina, which allows us to see objects.

Iris: The muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil, controlling the amount of light that enters the eyes. It makes the pupil large when light is dim and small when light is bright.

Retina: Basically can be called the film of the eye. It converts light rays into neural signals and sends them to the brain through the optic nerve.

Optic Nerve: The optic nerve is the cable connecting the eye to the brain. It is responsible for the interpretation of neural impulses it receives into images.

How it works: The conditions that affect your eyes!

Laser Eye Surgery is becoming one of the most sought after alternatives for helping correct vision problems. It is a type of surgery (term to describe surgery that corrects refractive error in the eye). The main objective of any laser eye surgery is to help correct the way the light travels through the cornea and onto the retina.

In the world today, one of the common types of laser eye surgery would be LASIK. It is mainly used to treat common eye diseases such as Myopia, Hyperopia and Astigmatism. In laser eye surgery, a simple procedure is used to help correct these problems.

The three common conditions requiring laser eye surgery:

Myopia : Is often referred to as “nearsightedness”, and it occurs when light from distant objects gets focused in front of the retina, rather than on it. The effects resulting from this condition are that a person won’t be able to see far away objects clearly. (They will appear grainy and distorted).

The reason that Myopia occurs is usually because the eyeball is too long, or that there is too much focusing power in the lens system. The correction for a person with this type of eye problem
would be to have the “Excimer” laser to remove a small part of the cornea, so that it would help flatten out the curve.

Hyperopia : Is often referred to as “farsightness” and occurs when light is focused behind the retina. The effects resulting from Hyperopia include a person not being able to see near objects closely.

The reason that Hyperopia occurs is because the eyeball is too short, or when there is a lack of focusing power in the lens system of your eye. The correction for a person with this type of eye problem would be to have the “Excimer” laser reshape the cornea, so that is would become rounder.

Astigmatism : The last condition is Astigmatism. Astismatism is an optical defect where vision is blurred due to the inability of the eye to focus an object into a sharp focused image on the retina.

Usually, Astigmatism occurs because the front of your eye (the cornea) is not round which doesn’t allow light to focus properly on the back of the eye (retina). Similar to Hyperopia, this condition requires an “Excimer” laser to reshape the cornea, so that it allows for optimal refraction for the light rays to hit the retina.

How it Works!

Having Laser Eye Surgery is quite unique. The basic premise of the surgery is that the surgeon will use a tool known as a “microkeratome”, to create a “flap” of the outer cornea tissue that can be folded out of the way and then replaced. Once the fold is put out of the way, the surgeon will use the “Excimer laser” (the laser used in many laser eye surgery operations) to make the necessary corrections. When the laser is projected onto contact with the cornea, it will vaporize a microscopic portion of the cornea. By controlling the size, position and number of laser pulses, the surgeon can precisely control how much of the cornea is removed.

Keep in mind that the “Excimer Laser” is actually a machine where an surgeon will input values and the laser will vaporize the approiprate tissue according to the values that the surgeon had put in earlier.

As soon as the flap is replaced, it begins to naturally heal itself into the rest of the cornea, so there should be no worries about the possible outcome of having the outer corneal tissue removed.

Pre-Operative Visit:

Before any kind of laser eye surgery can take place, a patient is put through a pre-operative visit to make sure that they are suitable for the surgery.

The doctor that checks to see if the patient is applicable in the ophthalmologist or eye surgeon, and it might vary on each one. However, the common tests that they will usually give you are to check if your existing vision falls into the acceptable ranges needed for the correction.

Another test would be to check if the patient’s cornea has at least a total thickness of 500 microns of greater, depending on the deepness, roundness, amount needed for correction and the dioptre range. (diopter ranges indicates the amount the lens can bend light at a distance of 1 m) Keep in mind that during the surgery, part of your cornea will be removed, so its necessary to check if you will have enough cornea leftover after the surgery has been completed.

In addition, medical conditions including severe heart problems, pregnancy, and other certain diseases can also prevent a person from being an ideal candidate

Afterwards, the patient’s current vision correction prescription is check, and sometimes a cornea check will be performed to see if there are discrepancies in the cornea.

Remember, each eye doctor is different, so if you’re thinking of having laser eye surgery, I suggest that you go see an eye doctor to learn more about it.

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Conditions, Eye, Health, Laser, Myopia, Surgery

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author avatar RisingStorm
Student that enjoys writing in business, games, sports and music.

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author avatar Tranquilpen
14th Feb 2011 (#)

Thank you Rising Storm, now I know exactly what had been going on behind the scenes when my total blindness was restored to both eyes through Lazar surgery lens implants :-)

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author avatar Fernbach
9th Feb 2012 (#)

My lasik surgery failed.could it be becauuse l have upper molar implants

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author avatar Fernbach
9th Feb 2012 (#)

could upper implants cause laser failure?

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author avatar Freddierick russel ordaneza
1st Oct 2012 (#)

why does eyes is very importnant?

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author avatar Freddierick russel ordaneza
1st Oct 2012 (#)

i dont know

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author avatar Deogratius montano
20th Nov 2012 (#)

eye is essential organ in the body; protect it you can!

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