Mental health

piyush ajmani By piyush ajmani, 3rd Jun 2012 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>Mind & Spirit>Mental Health

this page is about mental health,its symptoms,and disorders.
Mainly related to Anxiety Disorders,Mental Illness,depression,Suicide Prevention-their symptoms,disorders and prevention.

WHAT IS MENTAL HEALTH?

Mental health is the subject of a wide range of activities that are directly or indirectly from the "welfare", as contained in the definition of health established by the WHO as "a state of complete physical well-being, mental and social, and is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity ".There is no official definition of mental health. There are different types of mental health problems, some of which are common, such as depression and anxiety disorders , and other non-contact such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

Mental Health includes the promotion of wellness, prevention of mental disorders, treatment and rehabilitation of people with these disorders.
Mental health is integral to the overall health of the individual and is essential to its survival, since it determines the behavior, perception, thinking, communicating and understanding. Poor mental health can prevent a person to function and to fully accomplish. Mental health issues can be addressed from a broad perspective from improving the emotional well-being through treatment and prevention of mental illness, severe psychiatric disorders and suicide.

In Canada, the planning and delivery of mental health services is primarily a provincial and territorial authorities. The federal government, largely through Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada, is working in various ways with the provinces and territories to develop systems of mental health services coordinated, efficient and meet the needs .

The mental health problems and mental disorders


Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia: A Guide for Families (1991). Published by Health Canada in cooperation with the Schizophrenia Society of Canada.

Families who contributed to the development of this guide have expressed their hope that this document helps families affected by schizophrenia recently overcome fear, pain, and confusion they themselves have already experienced in the past, a time when it was much harder to obtain information about the disease. This guide is therefore mainly to families who, alerted by signs, a fear of their members is suffering from schizophrenia. It is also intended for families with someone in whom the disease has been diagnosed.

Review of Best Practices of the reform of mental health care: discussion paper (1997) , prepared by the Research Unit on Health Systems, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry

The draft study of best practices in the reform of mental health care was developed and funded by the Advisory Network on Mental Health Federal, provincial and territorial (ANMH), an intergovernmental forum for national collaboration, or Mental health issues are identified, analyzed and studied. In this paper, the authors make a summary and synthesis of findings from phases I and II of the project (a critical review of current knowledge about best practices in health care reform of mental health, the with emphasis on chronic and severe mental illness, and a situation analysis of initiatives, policies and practices of health care reform of mental health in Canada that are similar to recognized best practices). The authors then address the question of the implementation of best practice across the whole care system, and recommends several actions.

Assessment of quality of life for people with chronic mental illness; critical analysis of measures and methods (1996), prepared by Mark Atkinson, Ph.D. and Sharon Ziblin, M.Sc.

This paper discusses the issues, methods and instruments to be taken into account to achieve a meaningful assessment of the quality of life, be it in the context of clinical practice, assessment activities or research projects. Among the issues and methods discussed include: definitions of quality of life, reliability and validity of instruments, the validity of assessment methods, the evaluation design and the role of quality assessment of life in service planning and policy development in mental health.

Program Evaluation Schizophrenia: A Health Economic Perspective (1994), written by Ron Goeree

"In this report, the evaluation of treatment programs for schizophrenia is discussed in terms of health economics with an emphasis on quantitative research. Various types of economic evaluation are discussed, also, an evaluation model based on the measurement results is described and assessed in depth. The use of terms and basic concepts of economic evaluation is also analyzed. "

Program evaluation of schizophrenia - Part II: study of five programs in Canada (1996) , prepared by Ron Goeree

"This report ... is a review and a case study of several model programs and measures related evaluation, including the instruments used. This second report, which should be read in light of the above report first presents concrete examples of the principles adopted in the earlier publication. These examples serve to support the suggestions and recommendations on ways to bridge the gap between what is being done and what could ideally be done in evaluation of schizophrenia programs. "

Suicide and Suicide Prevention

Suicide in Canada: update of the report of the Task Force on Suicide in Canada (document PDF , 1.31 MB , 231 pages) (1994)

This update of the 1987 report is a collaboration between Health Canada and a working group composed of experts from several disciplines and several regions. The paper reviews current knowledge on the epidemiology of suicide, presents data on mortality from 1952 to 1992, and discusses various issues related to prevention, intervention, post-intervention and data collection .

The Human Face of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Canada (2006)

Violence and abuse

Mental Illness and Violence: Proof or Stereotype? (1996). Written by Julio Arboleda-Florez, MD, FRCP (C), PhD, Heather L. Holley, MA, PhD, and Annette Crisanti. MSc, PhD (Cand.)

Advocates for the mentally ill have always maintained that these people are not more prone to commit violent acts than people unaffected by mental illness. However, caregivers, providers of health care and patient advocacy groups are asking more and more questions about the link between mental illness and violence because, firstly, of sensationalized reporting in media and drama presented on television and on the other hand, conflicting scientific reports .... To help shed light on this issue, we made this critical analysis of published works on the issue.

National Clearinghouse on Family Violence (Clearinghouse)

The National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, Health Canada, is a resource center for all Canadians seeking information and solutions relating to domestic violence. Professionals, other front-line workers, researchers and community groups need to be aware of what their colleagues and their counterparts all over the country. Disseminating current information and results of recent studies on various aspects of prevention, protection and treatment, the National Clearinghouse helps Canadian communities in their search for solutions.

Depression

During our lives, sometimes we all go through difficult periods, due to the loss of a loved one or difficulties at work, for example. Many people feel a sense of failure as things go wrong. It's part of life.

Major depression is a clinical term used by psychiatrists to denote the state of a person who feels worthless and hopeless for more than two months.

Causes of Depression

Major depression is a multifactorial disease. Some are genetically predisposed to depression and several external factors may increase the risk:

death or illness of a spouse, friend or family member;
difficulties at work or in a personal relationship;
low self-esteem;
financial difficulties;
addiction problems.
Some people suffer from SAD, at the same time each year, usually during the winter when natural light is scarce.

In women, hormonal changes can cause problems of depression at menopause or after childbirth.

Symptoms of depression

Depression sometimes disrupts thought and behavior. It may also have physical effects. Some symptoms it is important to know:

feelings of hopelessness;
sense of indifference to life and loved ones;
constant feeling of fatigue or lack of energy;
crying for no apparent reason;
inability to concentrate or make decisions;
suicidal thoughts;
loss of appetite or changes in sleep patterns;
headache and digestive disorders common.

Overcoming Depression
Depression is a treatable disease. The first step in recovery is to admit that this is a disease and not a sign of personal weakness. For many people in a state of depression, knowing that they are not alone, they can get help is often sufficient to initiate the healing process.

As each person is unique, approaches to recovery are varied. The most common treatment is effective and the combination of psychological counseling and antidepressant medications.

Support from family, friends, colleagues and support groups can also play a role in recovery.

Reduce the risk

If you or a loved one suffers from depression, here are some ideas:

Do not feel responsible for your illness or that of someone close. This is a disease whose causes are often complex. Blaming someone suffering from depression or tell him to recover does not help and may even intensify the sense of isolation.
Talk about depression in your family doctor or a mental health professional. If the depressed person is a friend or loved one, offer to accompany this process, to facilitate its work.
Listen and encourage the depressed person to talk about her feelings. Make her feel that she can confide in you. Do not contradict or attempt to convince to see things differently. What she needs is to be listened to.
If the person who suffers from depression agrees, encourage other friends or family members to support it. More support it receives, the better.

Mental Illness

Twenty percent of Canadians will personally struggling with mental illness during their lives. Although most mental illnesses occurs during adolescence and young adulthood, people of all ages, all cultures and levels of education and income are mentally ill.

Throughout a lifetime, most people can feel isolated, lonely, sad, emotional or disconnected from reality. These feelings are normal reactions and often short-term with difficult situations such as the death of a loved one, job loss, a failed love affair or a sudden change in living conditions. People learn to cope with difficult feelings as they learn to adapt to difficult situations.

However, mental illness, by definition, is quite different. She has a serious impact on a person's ability to function effectively for a long time. Depending on the disease, the thinking, mood and behavior of a person can be severely disrupted. This person may not be able to cope with the simplest aspects of everyday life and need help to restore balance in their lives.

Mental illnesses do not only lost revenue, but their economic cost is enormous. In 1993, this cost was estimated at 7.331 billion dollars in Canada. Most people with mental illness may turn to health professionals and community services for help, but some people require hospitalization to stabilize their symptoms. In 86% of cases, hospitalizations occur in general hospitals. Mental illness accounts for nearly 4% of all hospital admissions.

Types of Mental Illness

Mental illness takes many forms, including:

the mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder, which affect how a person feels;
Schizophrenia, which affects his perception of the world;
anxiety disorders, which mean that a person is afraid of certain places, events or situations;
the personality disorder, which affects how one sees oneself in relation to others and
eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, which affects how the person feels about food and body image.
Although suicide is not considered a mental illness, it is often the result of an underlying mental illness. It accounts for 2% of all deaths, but 24% of cases are young people aged 15 to 24 years and 16% of cases are people aged between 25 and 44.

Causes of mental illness

Mental illnesses are caused by a complex interplay of factors, including:

Genetics;
biology;
personality;
socioeconomic status, and
life events.
Symptoms of mental illness

Mental illnesses are characterized by changes in thinking, mood and behavior, or a combination thereof. The sufferer has symptoms of significant distress and is unable to function as needed over a long period. These symptoms can be mild or severe, depending on the mental illness of the individual, family and the patient's environment.

Effects of mental ill health

Mental health is as important as physical health. In fact, the two are intimately related. Our mental health has a direct effect on our physical health, and vice versa. People with physical health problems often experience anxiety or depression, which affects their recovery. Similarly, factors related to mental health may increase the risk of developing physical problems, such as:

diabetes;
heart disease;
gain or weight loss;
gastrointestinal problems;
reduction in the efficiency of the immune system, and
blood biochemical imbalances.
In the case of eating disorders, people who have it may die from malnutrition.

Treatment of mental disorders

Most mental illnesses can be treated effectively. The methods of treatment may include one or more of the following:

drugs;
Science-based psychotherapies, such as cognitive therapy, which help patients to effectively change their thinking, feelings and behavior;
counseling (counseling sessions if you prefer);
community support services, and
education.
However, because of the stigma associated with mental illness, many people are not made treat or delay treatment.

If you or a loved one, show signs of mental illness, it is important to get treatment as quickly as possible. Discuss your concerns with a health care professional regulated ( p. ex. family doctor, psychologist, mental health nurse, social worker) or another trusted professional, such as a counselor or religious leader.

Reduce risk and promote healing

By getting help early, and more focus on maintaining or improving your mental well-being (or positive mental health), you reduce the risk of mental illness.

Positive mental health can help you adapt to life's challenges and make the most of. It can also help you heal if you develop a mental illness.

The following suggestions may help you maintain a positive mental health:

Adopt a balanced diet as recommended by Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating;
get regular physical activity;
get enough sleep each night;
avoid abusing alcohol (heavy drinking, to overcome problems);
avoid using illicit drugs;
learn to cope with the stress of modern life and take steps to minimize your stress and
talk to others, whether your family, friends or colleagues, things that concern you. Share your feelings and anxieties can help you cope.

Suicide Prevention

According to a report published by the Public Health Agency of Canada in 2006, suicide represented 1.7% of all deaths in Canada. However, this figure does not include suicides wrongly reported as accidental deaths or cases where it is difficult to assess whether the death was intentional or not. In fact, between 2000 and 2003, the annual number of suicide deaths reported was higher than the number of deaths from road accidents.

The suicide rate among men is nearly four times that of women. However, women are twice as likely as men to attempt suicide. The difference seems to stem from the fact that men more often use more lethal methods, such as firearms or hanging, to kill themselves. Women are more likely to choose a medium to slow action, such as overmedication, which increases the possibility of an intervention that will save their lives. Furthermore, men are generally more reluctant than women to get help for mental health problems.

Among adults 15 years or more, more than 3% have attempted suicide during their lifetime. More than one in five deaths among adults aged between 15 and 24 years is attributable to suicide. Suicide rates are much higher in some Aboriginal communities.

While almost all Canadians are affected by suicide, the stigma associated with suicide and mental illness generally lasts. This is a complex issue that involves many factors, including religious practices that prohibit a person committed suicide to bury in a sacred place. Stigma can prevent a person with suicidal thoughts to seek help.

Factors related to suicidal behavior

There are four categories of factors associated with suicidal behavior.

Predisposing factors

The following factors make an individual vulnerable to suicidal behavior:

mental illness;
abuse;
loss at a young age of a loved one;
family history of suicide;
difficult relationships with peers.
Almost all people who kill themselves suffer from some form of mental illness such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or borderline personality disorder. They are often drug addicts or alcoholics. Although people who commit suicide are usually depressed, only a minority of depressed people are suicidal.

Previous suicide attempts are common among those who eventually end their days.

Triggers

These are the factors that trigger a crisis. The most common losses: loss of job, death of a loved one, ending a relationship, divorce or loss of social position.

Other factors may also lead to a crisis:

pressure to succeed;
of trouble with the law;
financial difficulties;
rejection by society because of a personal trait, such as ethnicity or sexual orientation.
In all these situations, the person feels helpless and lives unbearable psychological pain she sees no end.

Determinants

These factors make the person more vulnerable to suicidal behavior:

physical illness;
problems of sexual identity;
family instability;
risk behavior or self-destructive;
the suicide of a friend;
isolation;
alcoholism or drug addiction.
Protective factors

The following factors help reduce the risk of suicide:

resilience;
tolerance to frustration;
self-control;
good social support networks;
sense of humor;
at least a good relationship.

Symptoms of suicidal behaviour
Could prevent more suicides by being alert to warning signs. A suicidal person often shows one or more signs of distress. Here are a few:

repeatedly expressing his despair, distress or helplessness, m me if many do not speak at all;
change in sleep patterns;
loss of appetite or lack of energy;
negative comments about self;
best interest and to loss of friends, hobbies or sports they previously enjoyed;
to donate their most precious assets or take other steps to put his affairs in order;
express his last wishes someone or talk about their suicidal thoughts, although, again, many do not speak at all;
have developed a suicide plan, indicating to me m the time and place.
Reduce the risk

If you develop warning signs of suicide or if you know someone likely to commit suicide, here are some useful steps to take:

Most communities in Canada have access to a hotline operated by people who have experience in assisting suicidal persons. Their telephone numbers are usually displayed prominently in the opening pages of the directory. Call them for advice and referrals.
Help remove the stigma associated with suicide by speaking openly and frankly with some of his suicidal feelings. Lend him to the interest and support. Do not tell her to "recover" or that it is his fault if he feels well. You could isolate it by discouraging further to express his thoughts or ask for help.
Get professional help from your family doctor or a mental health professional like a psychiatrist or psychologist. They can make all the difference. If a friend or family member is suicidal, you can offer to accompany him.
Whenever possible, remove items that can be used to suicide, such as firearms, knives, prescription drugs and narcotics. Suicidal behavior is often impulsive, and restricting access to these resources can greatly reduce the risk of suicide.
Put involve other friends and family members. The more support the better for the person at risk and for you.

Anxiety Disorders

It happens to everyone to feel anxious. Stress at work, planning a major event or undergoing an examination may create a sense of worry or fear. These unpleasant situations can get worse in people with anxiety disorder.

They experience long periods of intense fear or distress out of proportion to actual events. The brain interprets the real or imaginary events as if they were more risky or dangerous than they really are. Their lives are characterized by anxiety and fear, which affects their personal and professional relationships.

Anxiety disorders affect children and adults. Too often, people equate these disorders to the weakness or mental instability. The social stigma attached to mental illness often prevents those suffering from anxiety disorders to seek help.

Anxiety disorders affect behavior, thoughts, emotions and physical health. It is believed that a combination of biological, intellectual functions, combined with the personal circumstances of socio-economic factors are causing anxiety disorders, like heart disease or diabetes who are also the result of a combination of factors.

The people often have more than one anxiety disorder often suffer from depression, eating disorders or abuse alcohol and drugs. The good news is that we can successfully treat anxiety disorders diagnosed.

Types and symptoms of anxiety disorders

Panic Disorder

People experiencing this disorder have panic attacks that leave them terrified suddenly without warning. They may also have:

chest pain;
palpitations;
dyspnea;
dizziness;
stomach discomfort;
a sense of unreality;
the fear of death.
When a person avoids situations that can cause a panic attack, this is called panic disorder with agoraphobia.

Phobias

Phobias are considered disorders only if they prevent the person with a normal life. For example, the person who has a phobia (or fear) of being in places or situations that he could flee (or which would cause embarrassment) may be afraid to leave home. This is called agoraphobia.

There are two categories of phobias:

social phobias or the fear of social situations;
specific phobias such as fear of flying, spiders, blood or heights.

Social phobia
The person with social phobia fear any social situation. Being with others can paralyze and render abnormally borrowed. She fears being judged or do something moved in front of others. Because feelings are very intense, it tends to avoid situations that might trigger his fears. This severely restricts his ability to lead a normal life or interact with others.

Specific phobia

The person with specific phobia experience a disproportionate and irrational fear in an environment or to a particular object. It may be fear of flying, insects, snakes, heights or open spaces. She is unable to control his terror even though she knows unfounded. Exposure to the feared situation causes him extreme anxiety and panic.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

This syndrome is triggered when a victim remembers a terrifying experience where it might suffer or has suffered physical, mental or emotional. Survivors of rape, natural disasters, abuse during childhood or war can all suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder. The most common symptoms are:

recurrence of the terrifying experience
nightmares
depression
a feeling of anger or irritability.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

The person with this disorder suffer from persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) or behavioral patterns (compulsions) that she can not control. Examples of typical obsession:

contamination (spread of germs around);
doubt (I shut the stove or the iron?)
disturbing sexual thoughts;
disruptive religious thoughts.
The compulsion can also be seen in the constant urge:

to wash;
to organize;
to check;
to count.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
The person with this disorder experiences excessive worry in situations and ordinary, everyday events. The disorder usually lasts at least six months. During this period, the affected person expects the worst, even in the absence of contrary evidence. Here are some physical symptoms of this disorder:

nausea;
tremor;
fatigue;
muscle tension;
headaches.

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
We can successfully treat anxiety disorders. The most common treatment relies on a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy ( CBT ).

Because the majority of anxiety disorders have certain biological causes, the drugs most frequently prescribed are antidepressants and antianxiety medications.

The CBT helps people turn their anxious thoughts and feelings in a more rational thoughts and feelings. Sometimes the person will receive, in a controlled environment from exposure to the subject and the situation they fear. Some techniques of CBT were designed for specific disorders. For example, the person with panic disorder can learn new breathing techniques and meditation to overcome anxiety.

Support groups and knowing more about the anxiety she suffers can help the person manage it. Family involvement that the disorder affects can also help the victim to recover and learn to manage their disorder.

Proper diagnosis by a specialist in anxiety disorders is the first step of treatment and more importance. Many people suffer for a decade or more before receiving appropriate treatment.

Reduce the risk
If you suspect you or someone you know suffers from anxiety disorder, talk to a health professional who may recommend a specialist in anxiety disorders or refer you to a clinic specializing in treating these disorders. The following techniques can also be beneficial:

choose a time and place where you can feel your concerns and do it at the same time and same place every day. Spend 30 minutes with your fears and what you can do about them. Do not think about what could happen, but this is really happening;
learn to relax. Yoga, muscle relaxation, biofeedback and deep breathing can help you overcome your anxieties. Click on the link to the section Additional Information . For muscle relaxation, lie down and focus your attention on one muscle group at a time, starting with your feet or head. Tense the muscles for a few seconds, then relax them. Then proceed to the next muscle group;
get enough sleep, this will help you put things in perspective;
face the things that have made you anxious in the past. You could start with a list, then visualize a situation where you affronteriez your fears. You can then adopt techniques to help you face your fears without feeling anxiety. You may also evaluate your level of anxiety on a scale of one to ten;
're exercising regularly, it provides a sense of wellbeing and helps reduce anxiety;
Avoid drinking alcohol or recreational drugs. Even if you seem relaxed by taking them, they can cause even more anxiety and depression thereafter;
Avoid caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, soft drinks and chocolate, as caffeine can increase your feelings of anxiety. Also avoid the-counter diet pills and medicines against cough and cold;

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Comments

author avatar Sivaramakrishnan A
26th May 2015 (#)

Exhaustive take, thanks Piyush. It is tough to maintain equilibrium in a world that is full of strife - we all get sucked in! siva

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