Sweeteners: poison, or protective?

bwilli By bwilli, 2nd Jul 2015 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Public Health

Sweeteners, especially aspartame, are again on the nutritional spotlight. Pepsi Cola announced he suppressed his drinks, Canderel, leader of the "fake sugar" has already done the same. Sucralose takes place. An update on these sweeteners that replace sugar and which are supposed to help us grow.

A sweetener, what is it?

A sweetener is a substance that has a sweetening power more or less important. Sugar, honey, maple syrup, agave, etc. are sweeteners in the strict sense. They consist of carbohydrates which provide 4 calories per gram.
But, in common parlance, a sweetener is a product that replaces sugar (sucrose) zero calories (or almost no).
The sweetness sweeteners is based on that of sugar which is 1.

Sweeteners: more or less voluminous

The so-called sweeteners "load" have the same mass as sugar and sweetening power rather low: 0.6 to 1.3.
These are compounds polyol carbohydrates but not fully absorbed and suddenly bring only 2 calories per gram.
They are called isomalt (E953), lactitol (E 966), maltitol (E 965), mannitol (E 421), sorbitol (E 420) and xylitol (E 967).
These bulk sweeteners are widely used throughout the field of confectionery and pastry and meal replacements.
The so-called sweeteners "synthetic" or "intense" have a particularly high sweetening power of up to 400. These are not carbohydrates. Whatever their composition, they are used in such small quantities that they do not provide calories. They support more or less heat.
These synthetic sweeteners, intense, exist in powdered or pelletized for personal use. They are widely used by the food industry in products and drinks "light", "sugar", "zero calorie", etc.
These are the acesulffame K (E950), aspartame (E951), saccharin (E 954), sucralose (E 955).

Stevia (E 960) is not classified as artificial sweeteners because this substance is extracted from the plant of the same name.

Sweeteners: saccharin and acesulfame K, older

The oldest of the artificial sweeteners saccharin was discovered in 1880, very consumed during World War II when sugar was gone closets.
From the 60s, despite a rather bitter after-taste, she ruled the market for dieting. She was dethroned in the 80 by aspartame. Saccharin has been suspected of being carcinogenic and bleached the charges. She has mostly used except in a few sodas.
The acesulfame K is much less known for since its discovery in 1967, it was never sold as a tabletop sweetener. In industry, it is most often used with another sweetener. He suffered the same accusations that sacccharine but remained authorized.

Sweeteners: aspartame, the most famous and most controversial

Aspartame was discovered in the 70s by the American laboratory Searle. It was authorized by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in 1974 and then suspended due to insufficient studies on its toxic effects on the brain.
A new authorization of aspartame was issued in 1981 for use as a sweetener in solid foods and in beverages in 1983. Permissions were then given by the health authorities of virtually the entire planet. In Europe, it was in 1994.
Aspartame is now found in more than 6,000 food products and beverages and 350 medicines, many for children.
Composed of two natural amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, aspartame did not offer a priori no danger, the only restriction being for pregnant women and the precautionary principle: there is indeed a congenital disease, phenylketonuria , which is an intolerance to phenylalanine, a component of both proteins aspartame. Its acceptable daily intake (DLA) was set at 40 mg per kg body weight per day.
But many studies conducted by independent scientists in industry, aspartame accused of being responsible for dramatic ailments ranging from brain tumors to multiple sclerosis through premature birth and some cancers.
None of these studies had any impact on the various international health organizations which continue to allow aspartame: it seems that the collusion between scientists and industry are a serious obstacle.
The fact that Canderel, the market leader in this table sweetener gave up in 2013 and Pepsi Cola is preparing to do the same is, hopefully, a stronger signal about the dangers of aspartame.

Sweeteners: sucralose, the new darling

Sucralose is chemically extracted from sugar through a process called chlorination. Its sweetening power is 400 to 600 and it is very tolerant of heat.
Discovered in 1976, it was not marketed in 2004, after obtaining all the necessary permits.
A large number of studies, mostly conducted on animals have cleared sucralose of toxicity and influence on glucose metabolism.
But a team of US researchers, Susan S. Schiffmana and Kristina I. Rotherb, sounded the alarm in 2013, showing that, in humans, sucralose, when heated, emits carcinogenic molecules.
Sucralose is now found in many products of the food industry. It is also the tabletop sweetener most used in the United States. In France, the brand Canderel has substituted for aspartame. Pepsi Cola recently announced that sucralose sweetener would now its diet drinks.
But we expect further studies on sucralose conducted on humans by independent researchers and not by the companies that manufacture it.

Sweeteners: stevia

Stevia is a plant native to South America. Its leaves contain molecules called stevioside and rebaudioside, which have a sweetening potency of 100 to 300 times that of sugar.
The molecules of the stevia sweeteners have been detected in the 30s by French chemists and isolated, studied, approved, industrialized and commercialized in Japan in the years 60/70.
Purpose of large industrial fights (manufacturers of intense sweeteners do not really enjoying), stevia has been approved in the United States in 2008 and in 2010 in Europe as a tabletop sweetener and as an additive in products Industrial drinks.
Because it comes from a plant, stevia natural sweetener has an image even though its leaves are chemically treated to extract the sweetening molecules. In addition, the plant itself has been manipulated genetically to mitigate some bitterness and especially a licorice flavor that was a serious obstacle to the use of stevia.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the safety of stevia while others have found its toxicity in animals but at very high doses.

Sweeteners: Do They Help Lose Weight? NO

ANSES (National Health Security Agency for Food) published in January 2015 a fairly explosive Report: Risk assessment and nutritional benefits of EI (intense sweeteners).
This shows that intense sweeteners have no interest.
According to ANSES, there is to date no studies proving the benefits of sweeteners on weight control, any more than diabetes, but some showing the contrary they could make you fat.
What's the conclusion ? There is nothing to justify the long-term consumption of sweeteners as sugar substitutes. And agreed that, still on the long term, this sweetener consumption is probably not safe.
If you are addicted to the light, that's what you think!
And encourage you to drink water and normally use sugar: it offers no danger when the daily dose does not exceed 10% of total calories. 50 micrograms per day for a 2000 calorie diet.


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author avatar bwilli
My name is Boris William. I try to live in healthy lifestyle.

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author avatar Nancy Czerwinski
25th Jul 2015 (#)

Thanks for sharing your article!

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author avatar Sivaramakrishnan A
26th Jul 2015 (#)

Thanks for this erudite share.

The common citizens are hardly knowledgeable about such and buy off the shelf what is put on display - siva

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author avatar AmeriBev
28th Jul 2015 (#)

Low-calorie sweeteners are among the most extensively tested and reviewed in our food supply today, with decades of science verifying their safety. Moreover, specific studies of aspartame, including recent analysis by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), have ruled out alleged health effects. The EFSA’s overarching takeaway is that aspartame is indeed safe for consumption by the general population, including pregnant women, adding to a vast body of science that shares this conclusion. In other words, despite alarmist and inaccurate media hype, foods and beverages containing low- and no-calorie sweeteners can be safely enjoyed and are no cause for concern.
-American Beverage Association

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