The Clinical Significance Of Atherosclerosis And Cholesterol In Diabetes Mellitus

Funom Makama By Funom Makama, 21st Mar 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Diseases & Infections

Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. Arteriosclerosis on the other hand is a general term for thickening or hardening of the arteries.

What Is Atherosclerosis

Plaque is made up of deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin. The artery wall becomes thickened and loses its elasticity. Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may start as early as childhood but has the potential to progress rapidly with age.

Cholesterol And Triglyceride Tests
Every one aged 20 and above should have their cholesterol measured on regular basis. It is best to do a blood test called “lipoprotein profile” to find out the cholesterol numbers. Cholesterol travels through the blood attacked to a protein. The cholesterol-protein package is called lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are either high density or low density, depending on how much protein they have in relation to fat. Lipoproteins with more protein than fat are called high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lipoproteins with more fat than proteins are called low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Triglycerides are another type of fat usually measured along with cholesterol.
• HDL is sometimes called “good” cholesterol. A high level of HDL cholesterol appears to lower a person’s risk of developing heart diseases and stroke.
• LDL is sometimes called “bad” cholesterol. It collects inside the walls of the arteries and often contributes to the formation of plaque and subsequently atherosclerosis.
• Triglycerides are a type of fat the body uses to store energy. Only small amount of triglycerides are found in the blood. A high triglyceride may be a risk for heart disease.

A total cholesterol test measures the total amount of cholesterol in the blood lipoprotein analysis (lipoprotein profile or lipid profile) measure blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides.

Preparation and testing: Do not eat or drink (except water) for 12 hours before the test. The blood sample taken from the vein is tested in the laboratory. Total cholesterol levels may also be measured from a finger-stick blood sample.

Factors affecting the result:
• High HDL can be caused by corticosteroids, androgens, tranquilizers and birth control pills.
• Low LDL may be caused by antibiotics such as tetracycline, erythromycin or neomycin, by high doses of niacin (vitamin B3) and by estrogen.
• Eating within 12 hours before tests will interfere with the results
• Preparing affects cholesterol and triglycerides
• HDL cholesterol can be increased somewhat by vigorous physical exercise, smoking cessation and losing weight.

Treating High Cholesterol

The main goal of cholesterol lowering treatment is to reduce the risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack or stroke.

Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC):
• The TLC diet: This is a low saturated-fat, low cholesterol eating plan that calls for less than 7% of calories from saturated fat and less than 200 mg of dietary cholesterol per day. Plant sterol and soluble fibers should be incorporated into diet.
• Weight management: Losing weight if overweight and maintaining ideal body weight. It helps to lower LDL.
• Physical Activity: Regular daily physical activity (30 minutes) is recommended for everyone. It can help raise HDL and lower LDL.

Drug Treatment: Continuing with TLC will keep the dose of medicine as low as possible. There are several types of drugs available for cholesterol lowering including statins, bile acid sequestrants, nicotinic acid and fibric acid. The doctor can help decide the type of drug best for the patient. The statin drugs are very effecting in lowering LDL levels and can also lower the accumulation of artery logging plaques that lead to heart attack and stroke. In addition, they are known to modify endothelial function, stabilize plaques and reduce inflammation and thrombus formation.
• Bile acid sequestrants also lower LDL and can be used alone or in combination with statin drugs.
• Nicotinic acid lowers LDL and triglycerides and raises HDL.
• Fibric acids, lower LDL somewhat but are used mainly to treat high triglycerides and low HDL levels.
• Statins eg, HMG-Co reductases inhibitors are very good examples.

For more interesting and very important health related and medical articles, click on the links below
1. General Considerations, Clinical And Medical Classifications Of Anemia
2. Heart Failure: Definition, Detailed Causes And Precipitating Factors Of Cardiac Failure
3. Special Investigations In Cardiology II: The Significance Of Echocardiography
4. Clinical Significance And Health Importance On The Actions Of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) On The Adrenal Cortex

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Comments

author avatar Songbird B
22nd Mar 2014 (#)

Another powerful health article Funom..Always educational and informative..\0/x

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author avatar Funom Makama
22nd Mar 2014 (#)

I really appreciate all your encouraging words

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author avatar Khaliqdad
24th Mar 2014 (#)

what is benifit of rashi

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author avatar Fern Mc Costigan
23rd Mar 2014 (#)

Interesting post!

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author avatar Funom Makama
24th Mar 2014 (#)

Thanks a lot Fern

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author avatar Lambasted
25th Mar 2014 (#)

As usual, one of your excellent stuff you have shown to us.. Keep it up Dr. Funom

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author avatar bronnamdi
9th Apr 2014 (#)

Thanks Dr. Makama. Another informative article from you.

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author avatar Funom Makama
14th Apr 2014 (#)

Thank you so much bronnamdi

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