The Clinical Significance Of The Principles Of Drug Treatment In Hypertension

Funom MakamaStarred Page By Funom Makama, 20th Mar 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Diseases & Infections

There is a general agreement on the principles governing the use of antihypertensive drugs to lower BP independent of the choice of particular drugs.

Principles Of Antihypertensive Drugs Administrations

These principles include:
• The use of low dose of drug to initiate therapy
• The use of appropriate drug combination to maximize the BP lowering efficiency
• The change to a different drug class altogether if there is very little response or poor tolerability.
Many antihypertensive drugs are available. They usually fall into the following categories:

Diuretics: It helps to lower blood pressure by removing extra salt and water from the body. You may avoid this drug if you have high cholesterol.

Beta-Blockers: They reduce the rate and force of cardiac constrictions, thus easing the heart’s pumping action and dilating the blood vessels. They work by blocking the sympathetic nervous system. This is the part of the body that is responsible for the “fight or flight” reflex. They also block the release of a protein called rennin that causes the blood vessels to narrow, and subsequently, raise blood pressure. Avoid using them in patients with depression, impotence, bradycardia or asthma. In asthmatic, they can worsen the condition by causing narrowing of the airways of the lungs.

Calcium Channel Blockers

They lower blood pressure through a combination of effects on the heart, Kidney and blood vessels. They decrease the contraction of the heart and dilate the blood vessels. They also help the kidney remove extra salt and water from the body thereby lowering the blood pressure. They prevent calcium from entering the muscle cells of the heart and blood vessels, this relaxing blood vessels and reducing blood pressure. In addition, they are useful in preventing chest pain and slowing dangerously fast heart rhythms. Calcium channel blockers are some of the most commonly prescribed medication for hypertension. Avoid in pregnancy, bradycardia, congestive heart failure.

ACE Inhibitors

ACE” stands for Angiotensin Converting Enzymes. They inhibit formation of the hormone angiontension II, which causes blood vessels to narrow, thus increasing blood pressure. The ability of ACE inhibitors to lower blood pressure can be enhanced by limiting the amount of salt in your diet. They are particularly helpful in patients with congestive heart failure or ventricular hypertrophy (thickened heart muscle). It is very effective in hypertensive diabetics by slowing the development of Kidney failure. Avoid in pregnancy.

Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists

They work by preventing angiotensin II from attaching itself to the blood vessels. Since it cannot get to the blood vessels, angiontension II is unable to cause them to narrow as a result, the blood pressure falls. It is often prescribed for patients who develop cough while taking an ACE inhibitor. Avoid in pregnancy.

Other Antihypertensive Drugs

Vasodilators: They lower blood pressures by causing blood vessels to dilate or get bigger. They are useful in resistant hypertension.

Alpha-blockers and centrally acting agents are drugs used also.

Choice Of Drugs
There are many treatment options from these classes of drugs. Only the doctor can decide which medicine is best for individual patients. Such choice depends not only on the desired reduction in blood pressure, but also on whether the drug helps improve other cardiovascular risks.

The widely used “stepped care” approach in the past has been abandoned. Current guidelines recommend that drug choice should be individualized for each patient, taking into account any concomitant disease and risk factors when deciding on the appropriate therapy. So if one medication is not right for you, another may be prescribed by your doctor. Don’t be alarmed if you have been taking medicine and your blood pressure remains elevated.

Combination Of Drugs

If there is lack of response (which means that the blood pressure is not adequately controlled), a combination treatment or even a changed to a totally different medication may become necessary. One of the major reasons for the combination of drugs is that, while reaching a superior clinical effectiveness, lower doses of both associated drugs can be used and this results in lower incidence of adverse effects and therefore in better patient adherence to treatment. It is a way of fine-tuning the dosages to enhance the quality of results.

Overall, fixed combinations make management easier for the doctor when compared to free association of drugs. Also it is well known that the therapeutic regimen may influence patient compliance clearly indicating the superiority of single tablets administration in once daily regimen.

For more interesting and very important health related and medical articles, click on the links below
1. General Considerations, Clinical And Medical Classifications Of Anemia
2. Heart Failure: Definition, Detailed Causes And Precipitating Factors Of Cardiac Failure
3. Special Investigations In Cardiology II: The Significance Of Echocardiography
4. Clinical Significance And Health Importance On The Actions Of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) On The Adrenal Cortex

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author avatar Fern Mc Costigan
21st Mar 2014 (#)

Interesting post!

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author avatar pohtiongho
21st Mar 2014 (#)

I heard taking Lovastatin 20 mg per day for long duration will damage the heart muscles. Is it true? Perhaps only sales talk?

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author avatar madugundurukmini
21st Mar 2014 (#)

The Principles Of Drugs

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author avatar writestuff
21st Mar 2014 (#)

Thanks for your research. This is an informative post.

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author avatar Funom Makama
21st Mar 2014 (#)

thanks a lot colleagues... @ Pohtiongho, it is very possible, considering its side effects on skeletal muslces and general, causing great weakening effects... If you question is centered on the dosage, it could also be possible considering the duration of administration (for a long duration of time), but over here, the appropriate dosage is 10 to 40mg/day either taken once or in divided doses.. I will do a little more digging and then get back to you, okay!

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author avatar Funom Makama
22nd Mar 2014 (#)

These scammers will not seize to amaze me... I will leave this message here for everyone to see and know who you are!

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author avatar pohtiongho
22nd Mar 2014 (#)

That photo is not the person writing that post.

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