The Wikinut Hospital: Awareness campaign and Preventive Medicine channeled for your Protection

Funom MakamaStarred Page By Funom Makama, 17th Apr 2012 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Diseases & Infections

Finally, the wikinut Hospital is here. I have been making plans on this right after my 10th article publication. It is all about the awareness campaign and i need not work with the World Health Organization before I do this. in my own little way as a Medical practitioner I feel I owe it to wikinutters and the global internet community at large to do this, so please learn!


I intend using this community to discuss medical related issues, encompassing several fields of medicine which are of relevance to us. I will try to make each discussion as simple and as plain as possible (since we are not all medical practitioners and the intense usage of medical terms will ruin the purpose of this internet clinic).

In respect to this, each of my discussion will have majorly two segments: The patient's segments (which is about the disease in question and how to diagnose it. Simple english can be used here) and also the medical personnel's segment (which is about diagnosis, differential diagnosis to the disease and treatment plan with management and prophylaxis). The segment of the Medical personnel may carry some medical terminologies as it may not be too relevant to the general viewers (though still important). Hence I oblige each and every viewer who wishes to subscribe to this internet Hospital to try and read everything. if peradventure you do not understand the treatment plan of a particular disease you read about, do not worry (provided you understand what the disease is about), it's the doctor's duty to understand and apply it.


Like i said earlier on, the essence of the WHO (World Health organization) is to stabilize the world health system and one of the major ways of doing this is by creating good awareness to all corners of the world. And since I will be spanning through about 20 departments of Medicine each having not less than 25 diseases, we should be expecting to have a minimum of 500 diseases been discussed in this wikinut hospital. Are we not lucky? So we can also consider this as our own little "WHO"

What is Health?
According to WHO "Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"
That is to say, you may feel all right and strong but a little depressed, then you are not healthy. we can go on and on and that is why i have to take my time to cover all areas of medicine which affect our mental, physical and social well being.

Preventive Medicine

Preventive medicine or preventive care refers to measures taken to prevent illness or injury, rather than curing them. It can be contrasted not only with curative medicine, but also with public health methods (which work at the level of population health rather than individual health). This takes place at primary, secondary and tertiary prevention levels.

1. Primary prevention avoids the development of a disease. Most population-based health promotion activities are primary preventive measures.
2. Secondary prevention activities are aimed at early disease detection, thereby increasing opportunities for interventions to prevent progression of the disease and emergence of symptoms.
3. Tertiary prevention reduces the negative impact of an already established disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications.

Simple examples of preventive medicine include hand washing and immunizations. Preventive care may include examinations and screening tests tailored to an individual's age, health, and family history. For example, a person with a family history of certain cancers or other diseases would begin screening at an earlier age and/or more frequently than those with no family history. On the other side of preventive medicine, some non-profit organizations apply epidemiological research towards finding ways to prevent diseases.

Gordon (1987) in the area of disease prevention, and later Kumpfer and Baxley (1997) in the area of substance use proposed a three-tiered preventive intervention classification system: universal, selective, and indicated prevention. Amongst others, this typology has gained favour and is used by the U.S. Institute of Medicine, the NIDA and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

1. Universal prevention addresses the entire population (national, local community, school, district) and aim to prevent or delay the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. All individuals, without screening, are provided with information and skills necessary to prevent the problem.
2. Selective prevention focuses on groups whose risk of developing problems of alcohol abuse or dependence is above average. The subgroups may be distinguished by characteristics such as age, gender, family history, or economic status. For example, drug campaigns in recreational settings.
3. Indicated prevention involves a screening process, and aims to identify individuals who exhibit early signs of substance abuse and other problem behaviours. Identifiers may include falling grades among students, known problem consumption or conduct disorders, alienation from parents, school, and positive peer groups etc.

Outside the scope of this three-tier model is environmental prevention. Environmental prevention approaches are typically managed at the regulatory or community level, and focus on interventions to deter drug consumption. Prohibition and bans (e.g. smoking workplace bans, alcohol advertising bans) may be viewed as the ultimate environmental restriction. However, in practice environmental preventions programmes embrace various initiatives at the macro and micro level, from government monopolies for alcohol sales, through roadside sobriety or drug tests, worker/pupil/student drug testing, increased policing in sensitive settings (near schools, at rock festivals), and legislative guidelines aimed at precipitating punishments (warnings, penalties, fines).

Thus, preventive medicine focuses on disease prevention and health promotion through identifying and reducing risk factors for development or transmission of disease. Primary prevention – prevent initial development of disease, secondary – detect early existing disease, tertiary – reduce complications of existing disease.

Importance of Physical activity: The rule of Rat and Turtle

Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, thereby helping in weight loss and maintenance. It can increase basal metabolic rate, reduces appetite, and helps in the reduction of body fat.

Heart rate reduction has been seen to associate with longetivity of Life. Athletes tend to have a shorter heart rate while the obese have incredibly long high heart rates in which the former do live longer.

Same Heart Rate Theory: The Rule of Rat and Turtle
One unconfirmed theory supporting this is the "Same Heart rate theory" which gives the nortion that we all have a specific total amount of heart rate to cover in this Life before we die and so, those with a less heart rate tend to complete their total amount in a longer time and those with higher heart rates cover theirs in a shorter time. This was further emphasized by the rule of Rat and Turtle. The rat has been experimentally shown to have a heart rate of close to 200 beats/minutes while the Turtle has a heart rate of about 5 beats/minutes and if you consider these two Animals, the rat lives for a maximum of 2 years while the Turtle lives for up to 100 years.

Whether this is true or not, the main point here is for us to always exercise our body system to make us live longer.

Proper diet and nutrition

Nutrition is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary, in the form of food to support life. Whereas preventive medicine is the part of medicine useful for preventing disease rather than curing it. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with good nutrition.

Nutrients are the most essential things that may be required for keeping a body healthy. There are mainly six types of nutrients that may be required for keeping a person healthy, they are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, water and vitamins. Health of a person may become ill if in case the balance of the nutrients (may become excess or deficiency may be there) is disturbed and thus is becomes essential to keep the level of all the six nutrients intact. As the all the nutrients are involved in cell to cell signaling excess or deficiency of these nutrients may affect the hormonal functioning in a person.

According to report by WHO, “Nutrition is an input to and foundation for health and development. Interaction of infection and malnutrition is well-documented. Better nutrition means stronger immune systems, less illness and better health. Better nutrition is a prime entry point to ending poverty and a milestone to achieving better quality of life.”

The relationship between diet and states of health and disease is the nutrition. According to most of the dietitians nutritional supplements are the fuel for a healthy body. Good nutrition is vital to good health, disease prevention, and essential for healthy growth and development of children and adolescents. These days, a wealth of nutrition information is at your finger tips. From diet books to newspaper articles, everyone seems to have an opinion about what you should be eating. It’s no secret that good nutrition plays an essential role in maintaining health. Diet can also play a major role in recovering from many diseases.

A simple example to quote: According to researchers, taking additional vitamin D every day may help to reduce or eliminate chronic pain due to arthritis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, headaches and other types of pain.

Theories of Aging:

Life span refers to a theoretical limit on how long an organism might live under ideal circumstances. For humans, generally assumed to be 115 to 120 years. This figure has not changed for centuries.

Compression of morbidity suggests the ideal aging process would keep disease and disability at a minimum until toward the end of life, after which one would die quickly.

Aging is an inevitable process in Life and we must all grow old as we live longer. None the less, there are some theories or factors which influence a faster aging process. Not all 35 year Olds look a like, right? This is because of the different situations they face or different factors they are exposed to. Knowing such theories will help us and guide us to taking good care of ourselves.

Heavy Labor Theory – Higher mortality rate among people who engage in overly strenuous work, especially if they are over age 55. Death usually results from heart disease or cancer.

Overcrowded Conditions Theory – Rural versus urban living may be a key to longevity. Physiological and psychological behavior varies, and people who live in cities and who have a faster-paced lifestyle seem to die younger than their country-dwelling counterparts.

Wear and Tear Theory – Regular stresses on body systems or organs reduces the life span of that particular area. This might be associated with repeated ingestion of alcohol or other drugs.

Separation Theory – Aging and death are speeded up due to inability to adjust socially and/or psychologically after the death of a loved one. Apathy is common.

Hypoxia Theory – Decrease in cerebral perfusion due to circulatory insufficiency related to a number of complications including illegible handwriting and decreasing memory and/or alertness.

Brain Size Theory – This theory that animals with larger brains live longer has been disproved. The theory itself is not associated with the fact that brain weight diminishes to about 92% of its age-30 volume by the age of 75, or that nerve conduction velocity decreases to about 90%.

Enriched Environment Theory – Higher education and continuing educational experiences seem to provide psychological stimuli to enhance and lengthen life.

Bacteria and Virus Theory – The body succumbs to continual bombardment by micro-organisms. Experimental rats in sterile environments had their life spans increased by 16 to 22 months.

Functional Theory – Lack of physical activity precipitates aging. By maintaining some type of regular activity, individuals may experience better vascularization, increased stroke-volume and less vascular resistance, less heart disease, decrease in blood pressure, better collateral circulation, increased heart size, greater volume of blood capable of carrying more oxygen, more pliable vessels, better triglyceride removal resulting in less atherosclerosis.

Enzyme Theory – Vague notion that various enzymes may encourage or perhaps result from aging.

Nutritional Theory – Excess weight contributes to cardiovascular disease and early death. The ratio of fat to muscle increases with age, and proper diet and exercise can help delay certain chronic and degenerative diseases, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and osteoporosis. The life span of rats nearly doubled when their diet was reduced by two thirds.

Activity Theory – Family, work, social, and leisure activities helps to allay the effects of aging.

Free Radical Theory – Oxygen may interact with unsaturated fats in the tissues of an aging person and produce yellow-brown pigments. This is similar to the reaction that causes varnish to harden and turn yellow as it dries and ages. Anti-oxidants like vitamin E may neutralize the effects of free radicals. Cell division increased from 50 to 120 in test-tube studies where vitamin E was added, along with a 30% increase in the lifespan of lab mice.

Metabolic Theory – Also known as the Energy Theory, this concept is that each person is born with a given amount of energy to be expended over a lifetime. Sleeping in a cool room and lowering the temperature generally are thought to contribute to longevity.

Fixed Life Span Theory – Also known as the Genetic Theory, this concept is that each person is genetically programmed with an “aging clock” that determines when to begin aging and how fast. Dr. Leonard Hayflick demonstrated that an infant’s cells divided about 50 times, compared to fewer divisions in older subjects. He froze cells after a number of divisions, then thawed them later and noted that they “remembered” where they were and continued to divide until they reached 50 divisions. Dr. Donner Denckle believed that the pituitary gland releases a hormone (DECO – “decreasing oxygen” – the “death hormone”) beginning at puberty that inhibits the body’s ability to utilize thyroxin, decreasing metabolism and contributing to the aging process.

Autoimmune Theory – Antibodies attack and destroy normal cells.

Stress Theory – Chronic transient stress as a factor in aging as well as in some disease processes.

Mutation / Radiation Theory – Overexposure to radiation causes more rapid aging and morbidity due to deleterious effects on RNA and DNA.

Cross-linkage Theory – Collagen molecules begin to cross-link during the aging process, increasing rigidity and reducing solubility. This may be a result rather than a cause of aging.

Factors that Influence Longevity:

Now that we've known what aging is all about, why not we consider some factors which actually reduce or increase our Life span?
I was reading some journal some days ago and I read an advert which showcases some body cream mixtures which aid in depressing aging. How does that work?
What if I rub this cream regularly, but eat lots of fats, smoke, work as a mining Engineer who is actively involved in the heavy labor process of my Job, would this cream still depress the aging process all these factors stimulate? I do not think so!

We should be very careful with the stuffs some of these advertisers tell us and we should take our time to try to understand what exactly they mean by what they say. From a Medical professional's point of view that cream is simply a scam. So, if we can know some factors which encourage aging and reduce longevity of Life, all we need do is avoid them. As for those which encourage Life's longevity and slow down aging, we should embrace them. This is the best and natural way we can try to live a long and healthy Life. Here are some basic factors.

Heredity – Proven through twin studies (higher correlation among identical than fraternal) and parental longevity (related to both genetics and parenting style).

Gender – Females in almost every country and among all racial groups live longer than males, most likely due to environmental, behavioral, and biological factors.

Race and ethnicity – Blacks die on average five years earlier than whites. American Indians die on average six years earlier than the general population.

Smoking – The single most important thing one can do to increase life expectancy is not to smoke.

Disease – Likely to shorten the life span, whether genetic or acquired.

Body weight and height – Overweight people are more likely to experience chronic illness that reduces life expectancy. Shorter people have lower death rates and fewer diet-related chronic diseases and live longer than taller people.

Physical activity – Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower death rates from cardiovascular disease and other morbidities.

Alcohol use – It is still unclear whether alcohol itself has an effect. Protective influence from plant estrogens? Also, moderate drinkers tend to have other lifestyle characteristics that predispose to longer life, e.g., higher socioeconomic status, less rigid personalities.

Marital status – Married people live longer than those who are divorced or widowed. Never-married people have the highest death rates; research supports the correlation between fewer social relationships and increased illnesses. Also, single, divorced, and widowed individuals are more likely to smoke and drink heavily.

Psychological factors – Resilience to effects of stress & disease more demonstrable in some people.

Social class – Higher educational levels, more prestigious occupations, and above-average income all contribute to higher longevity.

Cultural factors – Multi-factorial influence includes sanitation, prevalence of infectious diseases, diet, and access to health care.

Physical environment – Radiation, air pollution, and water pollution are known to be associated with variations in life expectancy.

Some statistics
Here is the death occurrences of some preventable diseases in the year 2009 in Europe.
Overweight and Obesity: 400,000 (30.8%)
toxic agents: 330,000 (25.4%)
Smoking: 320,000 (24.6%)
Sexually transmitted Infections: 155,000 (11.9%)
Traumas: 65,000 (5.0%)
Illicit Drug usage: 30,000 (2.3%)

Can we prevent all these? The big answer is YES WE CAN!

The Wikinut Hospital

So, finally, teaching us how to prevent such diseases and lots more be it primary, secondary or tertiary prevention is what the wikinut Hospital is here to offer and here are the 20 departments this Hospital will span across just to ensure our health needs are met. Note that at the completion of discussion every disease under each department, I will come back here and link the departments with one of its articles published. I hope this will be of help not only to the wikinut community but to all at large.

1. Gastroenterology and Abdominal Surgery
2. Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology
3. Hematology and Blood related diseases
4. Cardiology and Cardiovascular surgery
5. Endocrinology and Surgical cases of the Endocrine system
6. Dermatology and Skin care
7. Nephrology, Urology and Genito-Urinary surgery
8. Gynecology and the Female reproductive system.
9. Rheumatology , Traumatology and Orthopedics
10. Neurology and Diseases of the Muscles
11. Pulmonology, Tuberculosis and Thoracic Surgery
12. Neonatology and Specific diseases of the Newborn
13. Genetics and diseases of Inheritance
14. Professional diseases and Occupational related ailments
15. Immunology
16. Combustiology and Frostbite
17. Diseases of the Eye
18. Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat
19. Psychiatry and Medical Philosophy
20. Dental Diseases

Once again, after the completion of the publication of diseases of each department, I will come back and link each department here to the first disease case related to it.
I do hope this will serve its purpose to create awareness. It is believed that if we all adhere to the measures and guides of preventive medicines, cases of illness can be reduced to as much as 40%. So, let's take the trip down Medical lane. Shall we?
Stay blessed and cheers.

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author avatar Buzz
17th Apr 2012 (#)

Exceedingly informative star page, Doc F!

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author avatar pretty_writer
17th Apr 2012 (#)

Great.. We are waiting.

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author avatar Peter B. Giblett
17th Apr 2012 (#)

This is a very powerful article and am looking forward to the other ones in the series.

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author avatar Don Rothra
17th Apr 2012 (#)

Great idea. Nice work.

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author avatar Retired
17th Apr 2012 (#)

very informative and extremely good read. Well done on your star.

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author avatar Lambasted
17th Apr 2012 (#)

I love this.

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author avatar Jules Castillo
17th Apr 2012 (#)

another article with a lot of useful contents...a signature of Funom Makama

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author avatar Ada Vera
17th Apr 2012 (#)

A great work Dr. Funom Makama

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author avatar Funom Makama
17th Apr 2012 (#)

Thanks a lot everyone... I really do appreciate it lots. I hope u all follow the series that is coming up next.

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author avatar cnwriter..carolina
17th Apr 2012 (#)

Fantastic star page you really have made an impressive study on this....thank you

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author avatar Tess Irons
18th Apr 2012 (#)

I greatly appreciate your sharing with us your knowledge in your medical field, Funom. I am so anxious to read the other series that is coming up. Thanks a lot.

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author avatar Funom Makama
18th Apr 2012 (#)

Thanks a lot guys.... And yeah, you will not regret reading the other series coming up... Just stay tuned.

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author avatar Ivyevelyn, R.S.A.
18th Apr 2012 (#)

Funom. How privileged we are! This is a wonderful opportunity to understand what is happening to our bodies. Thank you so much Funom! I am skipping a medical appointment today just to be told how high my white count registers. I am printing out your series. Ivyevelyn.

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author avatar Denise O
18th Apr 2012 (#)

I do not agree with it all 100% but, will wait and see the following articles before I really comment. Nicely written. Congrats on the star page, it is well deserved. I can tell how much work you put in this article, good job. As always, thank you for sharing.:)

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author avatar Ivyevelyn, R.S.A.
18th Apr 2012 (#)

Dear Denise:
It seems to be fashionable to disagree 100% or not all 100%. If you do not agree all of 100%, you should be able to say what you don't agree with! I would rather be disagreed with 100% and not left wondering what you disagree with. (Joking with you, Denise). Now I will run for cover! Your f f f f f riend! Ivyevelyn.

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author avatar Funom Makama
18th Apr 2012 (#)

thanks a lot my dear friends....
I am very please you disagreed with me in some issues Denise, it would be nice u share so that we all learn, Iron sharpeneth Iron...
Thanks once gain.

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author avatar Delicia Powers
18th Apr 2012 (#)

Superb as always Funom!

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author avatar Sivaramakrishnan A
22nd Apr 2012 (#)

What a useful share - quite comprehensive indeed. Thanks, Funom - siva

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author avatar Rathnashikamani
22nd Apr 2012 (#)

I appreciate your mission of creating awareness like this.

If every medical doctor shares their knowledge in this way, the common people will be immensely benefited by the knowledge they gain through such dissemination of expert information.

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author avatar Funom Makama
5th May 2012 (#)

Thanks a lot Rath..... U r totally right

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author avatar Retired
2nd Jun 2012 (#)

I enjoy your info about the wikinut hospital. Because I use to work in the SFVAMC, dental service. I was a writer for the employee newspaper. Most of my articles were about oral care. Because people need to know how important it is to take care of their gums and teeth. Because our teeth were meant to last a lifetime. And they will if we take good care of them.

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author avatar Funom Makama
3rd Jun 2012 (#)

I am very pleased to know this Linda TuckerRDA... It is good to know that someone shares this ideology with me.

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author avatar urguide
4th Jun 2012 (#)

Great effort........I am planning to work on Health, looking forward to your publication.

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author avatar Funom Makama
4th Jun 2012 (#)

can't wait either.

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author avatar Retired
4th Jun 2012 (#)

Thank you, I so glad you appreciated what I had to say about oral care.

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