Treat Diarrhea Children, Not with Antibiotics

bron bron By bron bron, 18th Nov 2012 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL
Posted in Wikinut>Health>General Health>Children's Health

Until now most of the people even some clinicians still believe that the treatment of diarrhea in children will not be steady if not accompanied by antibiotics. In general, the management of acute diarrhea and not with antibiotics or other drugs.

Treat Diarrhea Children, Not with Antibiotics

Until now most of the people even some clinicians still believe that the treatment of diarrhea in children will not be steady if not accompanied by antibiotics. In general, the management of acute diarrhea and not with antibiotics or other drugs. But it is aimed at preventing and treating, dehydration, electrolyte balance disorders, malabsorption due to intestinal mucosal damage, the specific cause of diarrhea, nutritional disorders, and treating comorbidities.

To obtain good results the treatment should be rational. Diarrhea in children is still a health problem with a mortality rate that is still high, especially in children aged 1-4 years, which requires proper management and adequate.

In the age group 1-4 years, diarrhea is the leading cause of death. Diarrhea in children is still an issue that requires a comprehensive and rational treatment. Rational therapy is expected to provide maximum results, therefore, effective, efficient and reasonable fees. Rational therapy is a therapy: appropriate indications, right medication, right dose, right patient, and be wary of the side effects of the drug.

Causes of diarrhea

Most of acute diarrhea caused by an infection. Many of the impacts that may occur due to infection of the gastrointestinal tract such as: spending a toxin that can cause impaired secretion and reabsorption of fluid and electrolytes with dehydration, electrolyte balance disorders and acid-base balance disorders.

As mentioned above, a lot of things that can cause diarrhea. If your baby or your child has diarrhea, it could be due to the presence of parasites, bacterial or viral infections, antibiotics, or food.

- Viral infections. Viruses cause most rotavirus diarrhea is. According to WHO, contributed rotavirus diarrhea by 15-25% in children aged 6-24 months.
- Bacterial infections. Very rarely is usually caused by bacteria such as Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella (non-typhoid), Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli may be a cause of diarrhea in your baby. Your child may suffer diarrhea due to bacterial infection if they experienced very severe diarrhea, followed by seizures, blood in the stools, and fever.
- Parasites. Infections caused by parasites, although very rarely can also cause diarrhea. Diseases such as giardiasis. The disease is caused by a microscopic parasite that lives in the intestines. Symptoms of giardiasis include a lot of gas, so a lot of feces and stinking, flatulence, and diarrhea.
- Antibiotics. If your child or your child has diarrhea during antibiotic usage, this may be related to treatment being lived. Antibiotics can kill the good bacteria in the gut during treatment. Consult your doctor about this. However, do not stop treatment on your child until your doctor approves.
- Food and Beverage. Too much juice (especially fruit juices containing sorbitol and content fruksosa high) or too many sugary drinks can make baby belly "shocked" and cause diarrhea.
- Food Allergies. Food allergy is an immune system response to food intake. Food allergies in infants is common in infants begin to recognize the complementary feeding. Milk protein is an allergen (the allergen) is most common in infants. In addition to milk proteins, which are common allergens are eggs, soy, wheat, peanuts, fish, and shellfish. Consult your doctor if you suspect your child has a food allergy. Food allergies can cause a variety of reactions (one of which is diarrhea) in a short time and after a few hours.
- Food Intolerance. Unlike food allergies, food intolerance is not affected by the immune system. An example of food intolerance is lactose intolerance (very rare in infants). Infants who experience lactose intolerance, meaning that the baby does not produce enough lactase, an enzyme needed to digest lactose (the sugar in cow's milk and other dairy products). Symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, and a lot can happen when the gas breaks down lactose. Symptoms usually appear about one to two hours after consuming milk products.

Handling Recommendations of WHO and Unicef as the treatment of diarrhea, namely:

- The use of oral rehydration new formula and liquid household
- Continue breastfeeding
- Continue feeding
- The use of antibiotic selective
- Zinc supplementation for 10-14 days

Not Need Antibiotics

Most cases of diarrhea does not require treatment with antibiotics because generally recover on their own (self-limiting). Antibiotics are only required in a minority of patients with diarrhea as kholera, shigella, because the biggest cause of diarrhea in children are viruses (Rotavirus).

Except in infants under 2 months of age because of the potential occurrence of sepsis due to bacterial translocation into circulation easily organize, or in children / infants who showed clinically severe and recurrent symptoms or who show symptoms of diarrhea with blood and mucus clear or symptom perception.
Zinc or also called Zinc is an essential micronutrient, meaning that although it takes a small amount but it is very important in maintaining normal function of the body. Zinc plays a role in the synthesis of adenosine Dinukleosida (DNA) and Ribonukleosida Adenosine (RNA), and protein. So when there is deficiency of Zinc can inhibit cell division, growth and tissue repair. Zinc is generally present in the brain, where the zinc binding protein. Zinc deficiency can be fatal, especially in the formation of brain structure, brain function and disruptive behavior and emotional responses. Zinc an important role in the human body and various studies have shown Zinc can be used as a treatment of diarrhea. So giving Zinc has received recommendations from the WHO and UNICEF.

Lactic acid bacteria are live bacteria that have a beneficial effect on the host by improving the colonization of probiotic bacteria in the gut lumen across the epithelium of the intestinal mucosa that had been occupied by probiotic bacteria with receptors in intestinal epithelial cells, so there is no more place for pathogens to attach themselves to the intestinal epithelial cells that colonization of bacterial pathogens does not happen. By looking at the phenomenon of probiotic bacteria can be used as a way to better prevention and treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus and other microorganisms, pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea caused by the irrational use of antibiotics (antibiotic-associated diarrhea).
Mikroekologi microbiota damaged due to the use of antibiotics be normalized back to the administration of probiotic bacteria. Mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in regulating the balance of chaos or disorder commensal microbiota in 2 working model recolonisation of probiotic bacteria and increase the immune response of the mucosal immune system in order to ensure especially local humoral mucosal immune system adequate to neutralize pathogenic bacteria within the intestinal lumen that this function by secretory IgA (SIGA).

Handling umun diarrhea

- Eat and Drink For infants and toddlers who are still breast-fed, continue breast-fed (breast milk). For children who do not drink milk, eat and drink as usual to replace lost body fluids
- Give oral rehydration salts Oral rehydration to replace lost body fluids. Please note for parents on how to correct administration of oral rehydration. The trick is to drink a glass of oral rehydration little by little, two to three sips, then stop for three minutes. It must be repeated again and again until one glass of oral rehydration exhausted. Oral rehydration drink one glass at a time can lead to vomiting and defecation.
- Immediately consult a doctor if the child's diarrhea more than 12 hours or if your baby does not wet within 8 hours, body temperature over 39 ° C, there is blood in the stool, dry mouth or crying without tears, and incredible sleepy or not no response.
- And if they do not get adequate treatment may ultimately undergo systemic invasion. Some ways of handling by using a specific antibiotic and antiparasitic, prevention by vaccination and the use of probiotics has been widely revealed in several studies.
- In general, treatment of acute diarrhea is intended to prevent / overcome dehydration and electrolyte disorders and acid-base balance, the possibility of intolerance, treatment of diarrhea-specific movement, prevent and combat malnutrition and treating comorbidities.
- Fluid Therapy The main treatment is fluid therapy of diarrhea. Implementation of fluid therapy can be done orally or parenterally. Oral administration can be done for mild to moderate dehydration can use a nasogastric tube, although in mild and moderate dehydration, if diarrhea profus with a great expenditure of fecal water (> 100 ml / kg / day) or vomiting hebatdi which sufferers can not drink at all, or bloating were so great that oral rehydration still be a deficit, it can be done despite the fact that parenteral rehydration parenteral rehydration is done only for severe dehydration with circulatory disorders.
- Dehydration by replacing the deficit. Rehydration in mild and moderate dehydration can be done in accordance with the provision of oral rehydration deficit

Intervention nutritional disorders

- It is important to continue to provide adequate nutrition during diarrhea, especially in children with a lack of nutrition. Drinks and food should not be stopped for more than 24 hours, due to the recovery of the intestinal mucosa depends on adequate nutrition. If not then this will be a factor that facilitates the occurrence of diarrhea kronik1. The return of fast food or drink is very important for children with malnutrition who had acute diarrhea and this will prevent further weight reduction and accelerate healing. Breast milk and formula milk and food in general administration should be continued during diarrhea.
- Supplements nucleotides in infant formula significantly reduces the length and severity of diarrhea in children because nucleotide is indispensable material for intestinal cell replication
- Provision of low-lactose milk, formula or lactose-free lactose medium given to people who show symptoms of lactose intolerance clinics and laboratories. Lactose intolerance spectrum from mild to severe and most are mild type that simply provide formula milk which is usually taken by the dilution due to mild lactose intolerance is temporary and will be within 2-3 days of recovery, especially in children with good nutrition. But if there is a severe lactose intolerance and prolonged still needed milk, lactose-free formula for a longer time. For mild or moderate lactose intoleansi should be given low-lactose milk formula. Other authors give a lactose-free formula or soy formula for secondary lactose intolerance due to gastroenteritis, protein-calorie malnutrition and other causes of damage to the intestinal mucosa.
- In this situation given human milk;, no need to provide low-lactose milk / milk dilution in children with diarrhea, especially for the age of 1 year or who already eat solid food.
- As in the case of lactose intolerance, then intolerance of fat in acute diarrhea is temporary and usually not too heavy so it does not require a special formula. In situations that require a lot of energy as in the healing phase of diarrhea, low-fat diet can actually worsen the condition can lead to malnutrition and chronic diarrhea.


Antibiotics, Children, Diarrhea, Health

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