SunnyJasrotia By SunnyJasrotia, 30th Jul 2012 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Health>Diet & Nutrition

Vitamins (vitamin) in humans and animals is to maintain normal physiological functions must be obtained from food for a class of trace organic substances, and growth in humans , metabolic , developmental process plays an important role.


Vitamins (vitamin) in humans and animals is to maintain normal physiological functions must be obtained from food for a class of trace organic substances, and growth in humans , metabolic , developmental process plays an important role.

Overview of Vitamins

The vitamin also known as vitamin , popular, that is life-sustaining substances is to maintain the activities of human life must be a class of organic substances, but also to maintain the important active substances for human health. Vitamin content in the body is small, but indispensable. Although the chemical structure and nature of the various vitamins is different, but they have the following in common:

1. Vitamins are pro-vitamin (vitamin precursors) of the form in food.

2. Vitamin not constitute the composition of body tissues and cells , it does not produce energy, its role is mainly involved in the regulation of metabolism.

3. Most of the vitamins, the body can not synthesis or synthesis can not meet the needs of the body, must always be obtained through food.

4. Body of vitamins is very small, the Japanese requirements often calculated in milligrams (mg) or micrograms (μg), but the lack of will lead to vitamin deficiency , cause harm to human health.

Vitamins, carbohydrates , fat and protein are the large material, we can say it is only a very small proportion of natural food, but necessary for the body.

Some vitamins, such as B6,vit.K are taken from animal intestinal bacteria synthesis, synthesis to meet the needs. Animal cells can be transformed into the tryptophan to niacin (a B vitamin ), but produces insufficient need; vitamin C in addition to primates (including humans) and guinea pigs outside, other animals can be their own synthesis. Plants and most microorganisms can synthesize vitamin, do not have to supply from in vitro. Many vitamins are an integral part of cofactor or coenzyme.

  The vitamin is human and animal nutrition, and a small amount of some organic compounds are necessary for body's metabolism, growth, development,,So it plays very important role. If long-term lack of certain vitamins, can cause physiological dysfunction occurs a particular disease.

Generally achieved by the food. Now find that there are dozens of species, such as vitamin A , vitamin B , vitamin C and so on.
  Vitamins are organic compounds essential for the human metabolism. The human body is like a very complex chemical plants continue to a variety of biochemical reactions . Is closely related to its reaction with the enzyme catalysis. Enzyme to produce the activity must have a coenzyme to participate. Known to many vitamin is the coenzyme of the enzyme or the composition of molecules of the coenzyme .

Therefore, the vitamin is an important material to maintain and regulate the body's normal metabolism. Can be considered the best vitamin is in the form of biologically active substances ", exist in human tissues.

Classification of Vitamins

The vitamin is a huge family, and current knowledge of vitamin there are dozens of species can be divided into fat soluble and water-soluble.
Some substances similar in chemical structure to certain vitamins, simple metabolic reactions can be converted into vitamin, such substances are called pro-vitamin, such as β-carotene into vitamin A; - dehydrogenation of cholesterol can be transformed into vitamin D3 ; but to go through many complex metabolic reactions to form.
Niacin, the tryptophan can not be called pro-vitamin.
Water-soluble vitamins do not need to digest, directly absorbed from the intestine through the circulation to the tissues of the body needs, the excess part of most of the urine, in vivo are poorly stored.
Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fats, emulsifying bile in the intestinal absorption by the lymphatic circulatory system into various organs in the body.
The body can store a large number of fat-soluble vitamins.
Vitamin A and D are mainly stored in the liver, vitamin E is stored in adipose tissue in the body, vitamin K stored less.
Water-soluble vitamins soluble in water and readily soluble in non-polar organic solvents, stored in the body rarely absorbed, the excess from the urine; fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in non-polar organic solvents, but readily soluble in water, with the fat absorbed by the body and accumulate in the body, excretion rate is not high.

Vitamin Deficiency Cause

1.The food supply is a serious shortage, insufficient intake; such as: a single food, improper storage, cooking damage and so on. Such as folic acid heat loss.

2. Absorption and utilization decreased; such as: digestive diseases or intake of fat mass is too small to affect the absorption of fat-soluble Vitamin.

3. Vitamin requirements are relatively higher; such as: pregnancy and lactating women, children, special trades, the special environment of the crowd.

4.The irrational use of antibiotics will lead to an increased demand for vitamins.

Origin And Types of Vitamins

The discovery of vitamins is one of the great discoveries of the 19th century. In the year
1897, Ackerman (Christian Eijkman) of Java found that eat fine grinding of rice can be given to patients suffering from beriberi. He proved that without milling of brown rice can do the treatment of this disease. And found to cure beriberi ,a substance with water or alcohol extraction, was called this substance "water-soluble B". In 1906 they prove that the food contains "secondary factors" other than proteins , lipids , carbohydrates, inorganic salts and water. its volume is small, but necessary for animal growth.

It is Identified in 1911 by the Casimir Funk (KazimierzFunk,) brown rice material contains amine (a nitrogen-containing compounds) , only the nature and distribution of food is similar to most of coenzyme. And some supply must balance each other, such as vitamin B1, B2 and B3, otherwise it can affect the physiological role. Vitamin B complex include: pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin , folic acid , vitamin B1 ( thiamine ), vitamin B2 ( riboflavin ), pyridoxine alcohol ( vitamin B6 ) and cyanocobalamin ( vitamin B12 ). It was also choline, inositol, PABA ( para-aminobenzoic acid ), carnitine , alpha lipoic acid in the B complex body.

  Various types of vitamins originated:
  Vitamin A , anti-dry eye vitamin , also known as the beauty vitamin, fat-soluble. By Elmer McCollum and M. Davis, found that between 1912 to 1914. Not a single compound, but a series of derivatives of retinol (retinol has also been translated as vitamin A alcohol, retinol), known as the anti-dry eye vitamin is present in the cod liver oil, liver, green vegetables , vitamin A deficiency susceptible to night blindness.

  Vitamin B1 , thiamine, also known as the anti-beriberi cause of the child, anti-neuritis factor, is a water-soluble vitamin. Casimir? Funk (Kazimierz Funk) in 1912 (some say 1911). Usually in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in vivo. Exist in yeast , cereals, liver, soybeans, meat.

  Vitamin B2 , riboflavin, water-soluble. Found by the DT Smith and EG Hendrick in 1926. Also known as vitamin G present in the yeast, liver, vegetables, eggs. Lack of vitamin B2 tongue susceptible to inflammation (oral ulcers).

  Vitamin B3 , water-soluble. By Conrad Elvehjem discovered in 1937. Two substances, including niacin (nicotinic acid) and nicotinamide ( niacinamide ), belongs to the pyridine derivatives. Exist in the nicotinic acid, nicotine acid yeast, cereals, liver, rice bran .
  Vitamin B4 (adenine, adenine, Configurations of Adenine) , now no longer be regarded as a true vitamin. The choline by Maurice Gobley, discovered in 1850. One of the vitamin B group, in 1849 for the first time from the liver is isolated and has since been that the choline phospholipid composition, 1940 Sura and Gyorgy Goldblatt, according to their respective work, indicating that it has vitamins features. Eggs , the animal's brain, brewer's yeast, malt , soy lecithin content is higher.

  Vitamin B5 , pantothenic acid, water-soluble. Discovered in 1933 by Roger Williams. Also known as over the acid. Exist in yeast, cereals, liver, vegetables.

  Vitamin B6 , pyridoxine alcohols, water-soluble. By Paul Gyorgy discovered in 1934. Including pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. Exist in yeast, cereals, liver, eggs, dairy products.

  Biotin, also known as vitamin H or coenzyme R, the water-soluble. Exist in yeast, liver, cereals.

  Vitamin B9 folic acid, water-soluble. Also known as folic acid , butterflies acid mono glutamate, vitamin M or leaf essence. Exist in the vegetable leaf, liver.

  Vitamin B12 , cyanocobalamin factors , water-soluble. Discovered in 1948 by Karl Folkers and Alexander Todd. Also known as cyanocobalamin or coenzyme B12. Present in the liver, fish, meat, eggs.

  Six inositol , water solubility, cyclohexyl alcohol, vitamin Bh. More than exist in the heart of meat.

  Vitamin C , ascorbic acid, water-soluble. ? Lind discovered in 1747 by James. Also known as ascorbic acid. Present in the fresh vegetables, fruits.

  Vitamin D , ergocalciferol, fat-soluble. Discovered by Edward Mellanby in 1922. Also known as calciferol, anti-rickets vitamin vitamin D2, ergot the calcification alcohol vitamin D3 cholecalciferol. This is only a human can be a small amount of synthetic vitamins. Present in the cod liver oil, egg yolks, dairy products, yeast.

  Vitamin E , tocopherol, fat-soluble. By Herbert, Evans and Katherine Bishop discovered in 1922. Of α, β, γ of δ four kinds. Exist in eggs, liver, fish, vegetable oil.

  Vitamin K naphthoquinone class of fat-soluble. Discovered by Henrik Dam in 1929. Collectively referred to as a series of naphthoquinone derivatives, mainly natural plant vitamin K1 , vitamin K2 from animal and synthetic vitamin K3 and vitamin K4. Also known as the clotting vitamin. Present in the spinach , alfalfa , cabbage , liver .

Deficiency of Vitamins

 Vitamin A: Night blindness, corneal xerosis, skin dryness, scaling Vitamin B1: neuritis, beriberi, loss of appetite appetite, indigestion, growth retardation Vitamin B2: oral ulcers , dermatitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis, cleft lip syndrome, keratitis , etc.
Vitamin B12: megaloblastic anemia
Vitamin C: Scurvy, the resistance decreased
Vitamin D: rickets in children, adult bone osteoporosis
 Vitamin E: infertility, miscarriage, muscle atrophy.

Sources of Vitamins

Vitamin A: liver, eggs, dairy products, carrots, pumpkin , banana , orange and green leafy vegetables.
Vitamin B1: sunflower seeds , peanuts, soybeans, pork , grains, wild edible mushrooms yellow slip matsutake.
Vitamin B2: meat, cereals, vegetables and nuts.
Vitamin B12: pork, beef, mutton, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs.
Vitamin C: Lemon, orange, apple, jujube , strawberries, peppers, potatoes , spinach.
Vitamin D: cod liver oil, eggs, margarine, milk, tuna.
Vitamin E: embryos of cereals, vegetable oil, green leaves.
Vitamin K: green leafy vegetables.

Warning Signals of Vitamin Deficiency

If you find yourself or family members with the following conditions or symptoms, may wish to note whether there is an early manifestation of vitamin deficiency.
  Vitamin A deficiency:
  Rough skin, itching, nail deep white line, dry hair, memory loss, feelings of irritability and insomnia, dry eye conjunctiva, urinary tract stones. Should eat beef liver, eggs, red and yellow vegetables, fruits, and cod liver oil.

  Lack of vitamin B1:
  Sound allergies, allergic reactions to the sound, calf intermittent pain, and suffering from beri-beri, neurodermatitis, etc.. Should eat more beans, grains, nuts, fruits, milk and green leafy vegetables.

  Lack of vitamin B2:
  Mouth inflammation, various skin diseases such as dermatitis, the scrotum Yandeng hand limb burning sensation to light over-sensitive reactions. Should eat more liver, milk, eggs, beans, green vegetables.

  Shortage of vitamin B3:

  Thick tongue, swollen lips, sore tongue, lip pain, head Pete the dry oral mucosa. Should eat more yeast.

  Lack of Vitamin B12:

  Volatile balance of action, the body will have intermittent indefinite location of pain, fingers and tingling, should eat more foods of animal liver and yeast.

  Lack of vitamin C:
  Overworked, the dramatic environmental changes or other organic diseases such as objective reasons, but often a sense of fatigue, are often easy to cold, cough, decreased immunity, frequent bleeding gums, wound refractory, deep marks and other tongue. Should eat more foods such as tangerine, orange, grapefruit, red dates,wild jojoba.

Self Tests to check the deficiency of Vitamins

Lack of vitamin A
  Dry eyes and sensitivity to light, more tears, vague vision, dry rough skin, should take more carrots, liver, eggs, milk ; often watch TV with cardiovascular disease should eat more.

Lack of vitamin B1
  Numb hands and feet the color Qianan, indigestion, suffering from polyneuritis and beriberi, should eat brown rice , red bean, tomato , peanuts and other foods.

Lack of vitamin B2
  Suffering from black and white inflammation, glossitis, cheilitis, ophthalmia, skin inflammation, secondary deficiency of blood, to be added to the flour, millet, peanuts, beans, meat, eggs and other foods.

Lack of vitamin B3
  Insomnia, bad breath, no cause of headache , effort, fatigue, should be added to the B3 tablets.

Lack of vitamin B5
  Susceptible to dermatitis, diarrhea , neuritis, multi-service milk, eggs and other vegetables.

Lack of vitamin B6
  Muscle spasm, trauma healing, pregnancy, excessive nausea and vomiting, should be added to the B6 tablets.

Vitamin Fact

Vitamin for Elders
Epithelial cells of the elderly are vulnerable to injury, the resistance is relatively low, while the main role of vitamin A to maintain the growth of epithelial cells, therefore, appropriate vitamin A supplementation is necessary. From the diet (such as carrots, milk, eggs, animal liver class, dark-colored vegetables, milk) to obtain the part, prior to taking vitamin A capsules, once daily, each serving a The content of 25,000 international units, taking intermittent.

Hope you enjoyed it...


Food, Food And Health, Girls, Health, Health Benefits, Healthy Body, Healthy Food, Smile, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin C Source, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Vitamins And Minerals, Vitamins C

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The author is the admin of blog Silent Sunny and also writes for many sites.

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author avatar Jerry Walch
31st Jul 2012 (#)

A very interesting and informative read Sunny.

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author avatar A K Rao
31st Jul 2012 (#)

Thanks Sunny for the detailed account on Vitamins!

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author avatar Rose*
24th Nov 2014 (#)

I know that when I take a multivitamin my skin improves - so it is definitely worth doing.

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