What's the Difference between Dengue and Zika

Sinead Owens By Sinead Owens, 22nd Oct 2017 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/3b9l9qzg/
Posted in Wikinut>Health>Drugs & Medicines

What is the difference between Zika and Dengue virus.

The Growth of Dengue and Zika

Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among new-born infants in Brazil. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the increase of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with the Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Dengue fever, of the same Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, has increased dramatically throughout Asia and Latin America. WHO indicated in 3 WHO regions the number of Dengue cases has increased from 2.2 million in 2010 to 3.2 million in 2015.

Both viruses are spreading to new parts of the world, transmission of both viruses are changing and the risk of these viruses which are currently endemic becoming pandemic is growing at an alarming rate.

What Are Dengue and Zika Viruses

Both viral diseases, Dengue fever (DV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are known as arboviruses as they are carried, spread and transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. The Aedes aegypti becomes a vector for both viruses after biting an infected person or occasionally, infected mosquitoes can pass the viruses to their eggs and larvae via vertical transmission. Both viruses are closely related, belonging to the Flaviviridae family and the Flavivirus genus.

Blood borne diseases can be transmitted via infected blood and organ donation, a mother can pass it on to her foetus (vertical transmission) during pregnancy or birth. The Zika virus can be detected in semen and urine long after the virus isn’t detected in the blood or salvia. Zika, rarely can also be transmitted by unprotected sexual intercourse.

Contracting Zika during pregnancy is particularly dangerous due to the risk of the virus causing microcephaly and brain defects of the foetus. Zika can also cause Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults, caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system leading to weakened muscles and pain. The incubation period for Dengue and the Zika virus is on average 3 to 14 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.

What are the symptoms of Dengue and Zika

Symptoms of Dengue can include a high fever (39-40°C), headaches, eye pain, muscle and joint pain, a red rash, fatigue, nausea and sickness, loss of appetite and smell and a low white blood count. There is a risk of complications such as Dengue haemorrhagic fever which causes bleeding and blood plasma leakage or Dengue shock syndrome which causes very low blood pressure. Symptoms tend to pass within a week but can continue for serial weeks.

Symptoms of Zika include a low grade fever (less than 38.5°C), a skin rash starting on the face and spreading throughout the body, headache, itching, red eyes (conjunctivitis) and fatigue. Most people infected with Zika are asymptomatic meaning they show no symptoms, therefore helping the spread of the virus.

Diagnosing Dengue and Zika.

Dengue and Zika are both RNA viruses which can be detected via serologic tests which can used to identify antibodies present. The biomarker, non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is used for identifying Dengue and Zika by serologic and molecular diagnostic tests. The NS1 antigen is detectable using rRT-PCR within 24 hours, NS1 is detectable before IgM antibodies are.

As both Dengue and Zika share the same Flavivirus genus, it is harder to distinguish between the two. Research has been carried out using Dengue and Zika NS1- reactive monoclonal antibodies (mABS) and it was found that cross reaction occurred with both Dengue antigens and Zika NS1 antigens.

Two sites on NS1 was found that was only recognised by Zika and not Dengue mAbs and cross reaction did not occur at these sites. The NS1 blockage of binding (BOB) assay uses the Zika mAbs ZKA35 as a probe on site S2 on NS1. Therefore, this assay can distinguish between Dengue and Zika.

Treatment of Dengue and Zika

There are no antiviral drugs to treat either Dengue or Zika, the symptoms are treated using paracetamol, staying hydrated and well rested. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided if infected with Dengue, due to the increased risk of haemorrhage.

One strain of Dengue (serotype) produces immunity against that strain and a short period of immunity for the other 3 strains of Dengue. The four serotypes of Dengue are DV-1, -2, -3, -4.

The Zika virus is mostly found in Latin America and the Caribbean. Dengue is wild spread, effecting Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Austria and Asia. Active prevention of mosquito bites is the most effective measure to take to reduce the risk of contracting either virus, wearing long sleeved tops and trousers, sleeping under a mosquito net and using mosquito repellent.

Vaccination against Dengue and Zika

A vaccine to prevent Dengue was made available in 2016, the World Health Organisation recommends the vaccine to be used only in Dengue high risk areas to prevent antibody dependent enhancement. The vaccine is available in Mexico, Philippines, Indonesia, Costa Rica, Thailand, Peru, Singapore, Brazil, El Salvador, Paraguay and Guatemala.

There is currently no vaccine for Zika, phase 1 of various clinical trials are currently taking place, in hope that a Zika vaccine would be commercially available within the next few years

References

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/multimedia/podcasts/2017/mysteries-zika-transmission/en/
https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/types-of-tests.html
http://www.pnas.org/content/114/31/8384.full
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/9/16-0725_article
http://www.who.int/features/qa/zika/en/

Tags

Dengue, Dengue Fever, Dengue Fever Symptoms, Zika, Zika Virus

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Comments

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17th Jan 2018 (#)


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(9) ASTHMA
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